For example, successful strategies can include recruiting potential applicants from:
- NIH-funded student development and summer research programs
- Undergraduate Institutions with a track record of preparing science graduate students from underrepresented backgrounds
- National meetings, societies and organizations emphasizing diversity in science
- Regional institutional partners and institutions attended by alumni
In addition, an institution can develop its own future recruits by partnering with local high schools, undergraduate institutions or graduate and medical schools to identify high achievers to apply for programs. These students can often be supported on a Diversity Supplement.
Here are some additional strategies for outreach and recruitment by population group:
- Communication strategies, by mail, e-mail, webinars and personal visits to Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tribal Colleges, or other institutions that serve a significant number of students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups
- Participation in national student science conferences such as the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students and Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science
- Advertising programs in that include or prioritize underrepresented racial or ethnic groups in media-based communication.
Additional suggestions, including strategies from existing programs supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, may be viewed on the NIGMS training website.
Applicants may have limited experience in recruiting students with disabilities. However, the following resources may be useful:
- Institute for Accessible Science (DO-IT)
- Department of Justice (ADA Home Page)
- National Council on Disability
- Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights
- Temple University Institute on Disabilities
- American Chemical Society
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Finding Financial Aid page
- Association on Higher Education and Disability
- Society for Disability Studies
A number of institutions are known for their efforts to provide educational opportunities to individuals with disabilities, including:
Here is a list of best colleges and universities for students with disabilities.
To identify and recruit individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, institutions can focus recruitment efforts on local school districts or high schools and colleges that enroll students from predominantly low-income households. Institutions may consult the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, for reports on: institutional characteristics, enrollment, student financial aid, degrees conferred, student persistence and success.
Institutions can use direct mailings to households with high school and undergraduate level students in zip codes, counties and cities with high poverty levels, using the American Fact Finder.
Program staff can participate in community-sponsored events aimed at informing students from disadvantaged individuals and their families about the program.
In addition to recruitment and outreach, NIH programs must address retention strategies for all participants and identify specific strategies that may sustain the interest of students from diverse backgrounds including those from underrepresented groups.
How can institutions identify potential retention problems? First, institutions should examine their participation data to identify any differences in retention, achievement, and progression rates by demographic group. Second, institutions should attempt to identify potential causes of retention differences and if appropriate, design retention strategies for participants at risk. One way of getting this information is to ask the participants for input on potential barriers or issues that they encountered while in a program.
Appropriate and effective retention strategies will depend on the academic or career stage of the participant and the goals and features of the program. In general, institutions with comprehensive retention services provide counseling, tutoring, academic support, financial support, and work to improve the climate on campus. Such resources may already exist on your campus.
Additional strategies for retention:
Appreciate the Contributions of Scientists from Diverse Backgrounds.
Motivational lectures, seminars or workshops open to all participants that highlight achievements by scientists from diverse groups and underrepresented backgrounds can be effective strategies to encourage an appreciation of various career paths, and provide insights about how a person's background can influence their career choices and contributions. Biomedical Faces of Science videos, and Meet the Researchers are available resources on this website to facilitate such discussions.
Provide Effective Mentoring and Professional Networking Opportunities.
Retention in research and science even after academic preparation is also a challenge. Availability of mentors, sponsors, and career coaches, appreciation of diversity in the workplace, and facilitation of supportive work environments can increase retention. A number of national professional groups establish networks to support individuals and groups who may not be plentiful in one institution or region. In recent years, these associations have spearheaded efforts to recruit and retain students from diverse backgrounds and underrepresented groups in higher education with the ultimate aim of diversifying their profession.
Provide Strong Social Support.
Implement steps to reduce isolation and increase persistence which may include social and cultural activities organized by affinity groups on campus, and national science related affinity groups. Work to reduce micro-aggressions (e.g. lauding achievements only by those of one group or minimizing the contributions of others) can also create a more welcoming environment.
Become Aware of Sources of Financial Aid/ Emergency Support.
Many students, and often students from disadvantaged backgrounds, require financial aid to complete their academic programs. For example, in some communities, a student may be supporting other members of the family in addition to themselves by working full-time and carrying a full academic load. In addition, students from disadvantaged backgrounds often do not have any “back up” should a sudden financial event occur (e.g. car repair, medical bill). Be aware of your institution's resources for emergency financial aid.
Provide Referrals to Academic Support and Advising.
Academic advising is integral to student retention. Some students may be reluctant to seek assistance; thus academic and faculty advisors should be encouraged to be committed to and to monitor progress of all students. Opportunities for supplemental instruction or tutoring can enhance retention. Strong student-faculty relationships and mentoring programs are key to increasing student retention and graduation rates.