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Article TitleDocument TitleAuthorYear PublishedSource TypePubmed IDAdditional Info
Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes that Broaden Participation in Science Careers.CBE Life SciencesRybarczyk Brian2016Journal Article27543634
Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars' continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation.
Assisting bioinformatics programs at minority institutions: Needs assessment, and lessons learned - A look at an internship programACMGonzalez Mendez Ricardo2016Journal Article
Over the last two decades, there has been a general acknowledgement within the scientific community that modern biology is becoming increasingly computational and to be prepared biologists need to build computational skills. We present work in assisting Bioinformatics efforts at minority institutions in the USA funded through a National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant over the last 15 years. The primary aim was to create a program for assisting minority institutions in building multidisciplinary bioinformatics training programs. The program involves four components for immediate and long-term increases in research opportunities at minority institutions. Specifically, we describe the results of a two month internship program. Through pre and post surveys reported by the participants, we have measured the skills levels of the internship participants prior to the training beginning and at the end of the training. The interns in the program have a stated interest in bioinformatics and are drawn exclusively from multiple minority serving institutions (MSIs) across the United States. The results of the incoming surveys indicate that the participants have acquired basic bioinformatics knowledge, but have not acquired general computational science skills needed to be successful practitioners within the field. This program has been a highly successful outreach effort and a very sound and cost-effective use of the Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) funding program from NIH. Important lessons have been learned about bioinformatics education that should be implemented at the policy level in order to ensure that educators, students and researchers at minority serving institutions can address science problems using state-of-the-art computational methods, computational genomics and Big Data. We offer suggestions based on our experience in working with MSIs and with High Performance Computing (HPC) to help improve the preparation of students for careers as bioinformatics scientists.
Challenges, Opportunities, and Impacts of S-STEM Projects: Insights for Institutional Capacity Building at Minority-serving InstitutionsASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsPearson Yvette2016Conference Proceedings
S-STEM provides funding to support low-income students intending to pursue degrees in STEM disciplines with an ultimate aim of improving the Nation's workforce. The Strand I S-STEM proposals are provided to help institutions new to the program to establish the student support structures and organizational culture proven to help students with financial need to excel beyond their economic circumstances. The structures needed should center around needs of the students in their institutional contexts. In addition to knowledge and use of institutional data such as demographic, retention, and graduation, it is important to gauge the specific climate of the programs and the student situation. Various data sources and assessments are useful to determine the nature of local problem(s) related to the S-STEM program goals and to determine the best use of existing resources as well as to adopt and/or adapt services to aid the project teams in achieving their goals. Since the time of the projects discussed in this paper, S-STEM has added a focus on "knowledge generation." New projects should seek to couch locally identified problems and needs in the larger context of educational research to help the broader STEM education community determine what interventions work best with scholars in their environments. The challenges faced by S-STEM investigators can potentially lead to breakthrough ideas for solutions that may turn into opportunities to impact students on individual campuses and at STEM departments nationwide. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2016.
Cultivating minority scientists: Undergraduate research increases self-efficacy and career ambitions for underrepresented students in STEMJournal of Research in Science TeachingCarpi Anthony2016Journal Article
In this study, Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is used to explore changes in the career intentions of students in an undergraduate research experience (URE) program at a large public minority-serving college. Our URE model addresses the challenges of establishing an undergraduate research program within an urban, commuter, underfunded, Minority-Serving Institution (MSI). However, our model reaches beyond a focus on retention and remediation toward scholarly contributions and shifted career aspirations. From a student's first days at the College to beyond their graduation, we have encouraged them to explore their own potential as scientists in a coordinated, sequential, and self-reflective process. As a result, while the program's graduates have traditionally pursued entry-level STEM jobs, graduates participating in mentored research are increasingly focused on professional and academic STEM career tracks involving post-graduate study. In addition to providing an increasingly expected experience and building students' skills, participation in undergraduate research is seen to have a transformative effect on career ambitions for many students at MSIs. While undergraduate research is often thought of in context of majority-serving institutions, we propose that it serves as a powerful equalizer at MSIs. Building on the institutional characteristics that drive diversity, our students produce scholarly work and pursue graduate degrees, in order to address the long-standing under-representation of minorities in the sciences.
Engaging minority students in sustainable bioenergy and water quality through an education and research networkASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsCastillo Krystel2016Conference Proceedings
Growing energy demand is connected to water availability and climate change and it places additional stress on the environment. Thereby, It is critical to prepare the next generation of engineers and professionals to face the challenges in bioenergy, expand sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels1 and enable climate-smart agriculture2,3. To address this challenge, a career-oriented multidisciplinary educational model is being implemented at three minority-serving institutions. This paper discusses the foundation of this educational program, which provides a robust response to the current sustainability issues by conducting multidisciplinary coordinated education, mentoring, research and extension activities among multiple universities and laboratories. This educational program aims to accomplish the ultimate goal of increasing minority participation in pursuing advanced degrees in STEM and attaining a diverse highly trained and skillful workforce with a strong pragmatic, experimental, analytical and computational background as well as scientific literacy in sustainable energy and the energy-water nexus. In this model, students are expected to gain knowledge and understanding of the operational complexity of sustainable energy systems from source-to-use. Students will be able to conduct research and discovery from the feedstock properties passing through the conversion technologies to the mathematical modeling and optimization of the whole bioenergy value chain. In addition, students will be able to translate their findings in the laboratory regarding water quality and treatment into operational parameters to be included in comprehensive water systems models. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2016.
Fine-tuning summer research programs to promote underrepresented students’ persistence in the STEM pathwayCBE Life SciencesGhee Medeva2016Journal Article27496359
Although the importance of undergraduate research experiences in preparing students for graduate study and research careers is well documented, specific examination of program components is needed to assess the impact of these programs on underrepresented (UR) students. The Leadership Alliance, a consortium of leading PhD-granting and minority-serving institutions (MSIs), has leveraged its diverse partnership to place UR students from MSI and non-MSI institutions in competitive research environments through its national Summer Research Early Identification Program. Using longitudinal pre/post data collected from student surveys, we applied social cognitive career theory as a conceptual framework to examine how research engagement, skill development, and mentorship aspects of a summer research program affect students' commitment to pursue research careers. Self-reported knowledge of research skills, time engaged in research activity, and students' understanding of and attitudes toward pursuing graduate study were measured in relation to the classification of students' home undergraduate institution, level of students' pre-existing research experience, and demographic factors. Our results provide evidence of specific programmatic components that are beneficial for UR students from varying academic and cultural backgrounds. This
Mentoring for Inclusion: The impact of mentoring on undergraduate researchers in the sciences CBE Life SciencesHaeger Heather2016Journal Article27543635
Increasing inclusion of underrepresented minority and first-generation students in mentored research experiences both increases diversity in the life sciences research community and prepares students for successful careers in these fields. However, analyses of the impact of mentoring approaches on specific student gains are limited. This study addresses the impact of mentoring strategies within research experiences on broadening access to the life sciences by examining both how these experiences impacted student success and how the quality of mentorship affected the development of research and academic skills for a diverse population of students at a public, minority-serving institution. Institutional data on student grades and graduation rates (n = 348) along with postresearch experience surveys (n = 138) found that students mentored in research had significantly higher cumulative grade point averages and similar graduation rates as a matched set of peers. Examination of the relationships between student-reported gains and mentoring strategies demonstrated that socioemotional and culturally relevant mentoring impacted student development during mentored research experiences. Additionally, extended engagement in research yielded significantly higher development of research-related skills and level of independence in research. Recommendations are provided for using mentoring to support traditionally underrepresented students in the sciences.
Student dashboard for a multi-agent approach for academic advisingASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsPerez Oscar Antonio2016Conference Proceedings
The objective of this research is to demonstrate the performance of a new mechanism to improve the advising of students in a nontraditional college environment, specifically the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Minority serving institutions, commuter campuses and institutions with a high percentage of student transfers are unable to keep a tightly controlled cohort of students progressing through the curriculum. Students usually have varied course loads and different priorities due to family, financial needs or other responsibilities. Therefore, there is a need for an individualized approach to advising. The school's administration faces challenges scheduling courses and allocating diminishing resources to satisfy student demand. In addition, faculty needs to assess the efficacy of their curriculum in a program, and collecting longitudinal student data is difficult. A web application system (mobile compatible) using a multi-agent approach has been developed to allow the students (agents) to take more control over their individualized advising. In this context, the student tool becomes an agent, and the school provides the environment with a desirable behavior for the system. This research will identify the school's administrators as the academic control objective and will be referred to as the "Operator". This paper focuses on the agent system by building a dashboard tool that collects each individual student's information regarding their progress through the curriculum in a program, and then generates advising recommendations. The agent logic employs principles used in project management tools designed for resource of schedule optimization. The tool helps students optimize their resources to complete their degree sooner. It provides a visualization map of course sequences, customized for each student based on their history of courses completed and then making advising adjustments that will optimize the time to obtain the degree under a constrained set of resources. At the same time, the agent system provides real-time feedback to the department administration. The second tool is the department administration dashboard that consolidates the collected data from the students through several semesters (historical data) plus the predicted effects of the recommended plans. This enables a better resource allocation from the administration and deeper analysis of the curriculum effectiveness. Previous work has presented some limited insight into the multi-agent approach and the critical path methods. However, the proliferation of mobile devices and Cloud computing enables a larger scale application of the proposed methodology. The results acquired at this point show a very high acceptance of the system by the students. The complete dataset will be discussed extensively in the results section. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2016.
An emerging conceptual framework for conducting disability, health, independent living, and rehabilitation research mentorship and training at minority serving institutionsJournal of RehabilitationManyibe Edward2015Journal Article
Research mentorship has long been considered a preeminent research capacity building (RCB) approach. However, existing mentorship models designed to improve the research skills (i.e., research methods and grant writing) of faculty scholars at United States minority serving institutions (i.e., historically Black colleges and universities, Hispanic serving institutions, and American Indian tribal colleges and universities) may be insufficient for building such capacities. This paper proposes an emerging conceptual framework for a new Peer-to-Peer Mentor Research Team Model (PPMRTM) designed to enhance the research skills of faculty scholars (herein referred to as fellows) and help to build the needed critical mass of researchers of color in the field of disability, health, independent living, and rehabilitation. A combination of Lippitt's planned change theory and critical mass theory provided a useful framework to contextualize and support the design of this model. A set of recommended approaches that can be considered by federal research organizations (i.e., National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research, and National Institutes of Health), minority serving institutions, and researchers for assessment of the model and advancing the current state of science on minority serving institution RCB are presented.
Engaging undergraduates in the New York city s-safe internship program: An impetus to raise geoscience awarenessJounal of Geoscience EducationBlakely Reginald2015Journal Article
To engender and raise awareness to the geosciences, a geoscience research project and a corresponding geoscience internship program were designed around plume dispersion dynamics within and above the New York City subway system. Federal, regional, and local agencies partnered with undergraduate students from minority-serving institutions to conduct the largest plume dispersion study ever done in a complex, dense, urban-coastal metropolis. The students were engaged in an array of geoscience activities within the confines of geoscience learning communities. Assessment results indicate that the geoscience exposure and experience helped to stimulate and proliferate geoscience awareness and knowledge among the undergraduates.
Integration and achievement: Predicting persistence among Hispanic and Black engineering students at minority serving institutions6th Research in Engineering Education Symposium: Translating Research into PracticeBliss L. B.2015Conference Proceedings
Hispanic and Black undergraduates enrolled in engineering education programs in the United States are less likely to persist in their studies and obtain a degree than members of other racial/ethnic groups with similar academic characteristics. Influenced by Durkheim's notion of normative integration (integration through similarity in beliefs and values), Braxton and Lien suggested that a student leaves an institution when his or her academic beliefs and values are inconsistent with those of the institution. This study tracked these students from their second though their fourth years of study. Results from a sample composed of 193 Black and Hispanic engineering undergraduate students attending institutions where they were the majority indicated that a level of social integration and students' grade point averages (a measure of academic integration) were predictors of persistence through the fourth year in the engineering program.
Testing CREATE at community colleges: An examination of faculty perspectives and diverse student gainsCBE Life Sciences EducationKenyon Kristy L.2015Journal Article26931399
CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science.
Undergraduate research programs can also be faculty development programsDiversity in Higher EducationHarrington Melissa2015Journal Article
Typical undergraduate research programs involving HBCU students have several weaknesses including the short time of the students' involvement in the research and the variable level of commitment of faculty mentors. Another issue at HBCUs is the lack of both start-up support for new faculty and external research support, which limits the quality of research projects and the pool of faculty mentors. We designed our NSF-funded undergraduate research program to be a professional development program to help faculty expand their research program and improve their mentoring skills, while at the same time involving undergraduates in research. Faculty in STEM departments competed for Student Support Grants that provided support for research-related equipment, supplies, travel, and up to two students for one year. Faculty submitted proposals describing their research project, the role of students in the project, and their student mentoring plan. Faculty mentors could recruit their own students for the project, and both faculty mentors and students were required to commit to the research project for one year. Outcomes of the program were very positive for both the faculty and the students. All of the involved students presented their research at conferences and several were co-Authors on research publications. All but a few of the students continued working in research even after their time in the program was over. In addition, many of the supported faculty members were able to use the financial support as a springboard for successful applications for other grant programs.
Addressing health disparities in the undergraduate curriculum: An approach to develop a knowledgeable biomedical workforceCBE Life Sciences EducationBenabators Rocio2014Journal Article25452486
Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health disparities is crucial for addressing this issue. Establishing undergraduate health disparities courses that are accessible to undergraduate students in the life sciences is necessary to increase students' understanding and awareness of these issues and motivate them to address these disparities during their careers. The majority of universities do not include courses related to health disparities in their curricula, and only a few universities manage them from their life sciences departments. The figures are especially low for minority-serving institutions, which serve students from communities disproportionally affected by health disparities. Universities should consider several possible approaches to infuse their undergraduate curricula with health disparities courses or activities. Eliminating health disparities will require efforts from diverse stakeholders. Undergraduate institutions can play an important role in developing an aware biomedical workforce and helping to close the gap in health outcomes.
Diverse Experiences in Diversity at the Geography Department ScaleProfessional GeographerSolis Patricia2014Journal Article
Departments are critical intervention points for enhancing diversity in any academic discipline, yet their experiences related to diversity differ widely. This article explores how several geography departments that vary by region, setting, and institutional type have experienced and promoted diversity. We also explore geography at different types of institutions, particularly minority-serving institutions and land-grant colleges and universities. We conclude that plans for improving the recruitment and retention of diverse students and faculty should make explicit the connection between structural factors, such as institutional contexts, and the agency of geography departments as key actors.
The Leadership Alliance: Twenty Years of Developing a Diverse Research WorkforcePeabody Journal of EducationGhee Medeva2014Journal Article
The Leadership Alliance is a national academic consortium currently comprising 32 academic institutions including Ivy League and major-research and minority-serving institutions, including Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). For 2 decades these institutions have worked collaboratively to train, mentor, and support underrepresented minority students from undergraduate through advanced graduate training programs. Effectively bridging the research capacity of Ivy League and leading research institutions with minority talent at HBCUs and minority-serving institutions, the Alliance has leveraged its long-standing partnership to develop and implement the Summer Research Early Identification Program (SR-EIP) and the Leadership Alliance National Symposium (LANS), proven programs for diversifying the pipeline of scholars. The objectives of this descriptive study are to demonstrate (a) the impact of these programs on student participants' undergraduate learning experience, and (b) the subsequent academic and career outcomes that occur for program participants. Discussion of the data sources and analysis approaches used in this study follow a description of the SR-EIP/LANS program participants. The outcome data demonstrate that the Alliance has become a nationally established pipeline program that successfully mentors underrepresented students along the entire academic pathway to produce scholars and researchers poised to contribute to a competitive 21st-century workforce.
Training, education, and outreach - Raising the barConcurrency Computation Practice and Experience, Akli Linda2014Journal Article
To accelerate scientific discovery, the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) aims to enhance researcher productivity, increase its user base, and prepare new generations of researchers to use advanced digital technologies. Accordingly, XSEDE is educating diverse populations of new users through regional workshops targeted at large populations of those traditionally underrepresented in the use of XSEDE resources. The expanded scale and scope of recent workshops provide evidence that (1) there is strong interest in leveraging advanced digital services in research and teaching at minority-serving institutions; (2) these local events are needed to reach these communities; and (3) increased collaboration is required to inculcate the use of computational methods into research and teaching at these institutions. This makes it clear that XSEDE's efforts are meaningful beyond just providing training in advanced digital services; they contribute to national goals for developing and sustaining a large and diverse STEM workforce. This paper focuses on the first of the larger workshops (held at The University of Texas at El Paso) and its impact on subsequent events. Best practices used to plan, execute, and evaluate this workshop are discussed, and the results of a professional assessment of the three workshops are presented.
Using wiki-based discussion forums in calculus: E-pathway toward improving students' retention and learning in STEM gateway courses (Minority serving two-year college settings)ISEC 2014 - 4th IEEE Integrated STEM Education ConferenceMosina 2014Conference Proceedings
In order to address a problem of high attrition rates during the beginning of students' undergraduate STEM career and the issue of engaging and retaining students from underrepresented minorities and disadvantaged economic groups, this paper revisits the notion of social learning via Web 2.0 resources and explores effects of integration of a specific wiki-based online discussion platform, Piazza, into traditional calculus course offered in a two-year minority serving institution. Rooted in the existing research on correlation of students' retention and success in Calculus and their future attainment of an undergraduate STEM degree, the Calculus-with-Piazza e-pathway toward retention and learning improvement, with high emphasis on the culture and art of active social e-learning, is being established and studied in a community college setting. It is shown that Piazza peer-based interaction reduces student isolation and creates effective learning climate in Calculus classrooms. Expectations, experiences, strategies, and outcomes are shared. Broader impacts and future developments are discussed.
Broadening the pipeline through the study of pathways and persistence of Black and Hispanic engineering undergraduatesResearch in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2013, Fleming Lorraine2013Conference Proceedings
This study examined the identity, persistence, and pathways of Black and Hispanic engineering undergraduates attending Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) where they are the majority. One of the keys to increasing the numbers of minority engineers is an understanding of the pathways that they travel and the identity that they acquire on their way to becoming an engineer. Using a mixed-methods approach, the findings revealed that students' successful integration into their university was to some degree due to shared cultural identity with their institutions. This integration along with a developing engineering identity, and self-efficacy led to persistence in their engineering majors.
Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) ConsortiumClinical and Translational ScienceOfili Elizabeth2013Journal Article
Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities.
Partnered research experiences for junior faculty at minority-serving institutions enhance professional successCBE Life Sciences EducationCampbell Andrew2013Journal Article24006388
Scientific workforce diversity is critical to ensuring the realization of our national research goals and minority-serving institutions play a vital role in preparing undergraduate students for science careers. This paper summarizes the outcomes of supporting career training and research practices by faculty from teaching-intensive, minority-serving institutions. Support of these faculty members is predicted to lead to: 1) increases in the numbers of refereed publications, 2) increases in federal grant funding, and 3) a positive impact on professional activities and curricular practices at their home institutions that support student training. The results presented show increased productivity is evident as early as 1 yr following completion of the program, with participants being more independently productive than their matched peers in key areas that serve as measures of academic success. These outcomes are consistent with the goals of the Visiting Professorship Program to enhance scientific practices impacting undergraduate student training. Furthermore, the outcomes demonstrate the benefits of training support for research activities at minority-serving institutions that can lead to increased engagement of students from diverse backgrounds. The practices and results presented demonstrate a successful generalizable approach for stimulating junior faculty development and can serve as a basis for long-term faculty career development strategies that support scientific workforce diversity.
Preparing underrepresented students of color for doctoral success: The role of undergraduate institutionsInternational Journal of Doctoral Studies, Lundy-Wagner Valerie2013Journal Article
Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant increase in the number of doctoral degrees conferred upon underrepresented minority (URM) students. However, White students still account for the vast majority - Approximately 80 percent - of all doctoral degrees conferred in the United States. As education stakeholders seek to diversify the professoriate, an updated examination of the baccalaureate origins of successful URM students is warranted to improve our understanding of where they are best prepared for doctoral degree programs. We used data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) to identify the baccalaureate origins of African American, Latina/o, and Asian/Pacific Islander stu-dents who received doctoral degrees between 1995 and 2005, distinguishing the top ten producing institutions for each racial/ethnic group. Using extant research, we then identified and examined institutional characteristics of those top ten producers. Findings both confirm and build upon past research showing that institutional characteristics such as sector, racial/ethnic composition, selectivity, and geographic location matter in terms of producing successful URM doctoral students. The implications of the findings are dis-cussed and suggestions for future re-search are presented for institutions that wish to recruit and retain URM students to their doctoral degree programs. Preparing Underrepresented Students of Color for Doctoral Success.
Social support: How hispanic and black engineering students perceive the support of peers, family, and facultyASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsFleming Lorraine2013Conference Proceedings
Research on minority and gender differences in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education continues to suggest that underrepresented students face unique challenges when navigating post-secondary education. Higher attrition rates for women and minorities in engineering indicates that engineering lags behind other STEM disciplines in ethnic and gender diversity. Although much of the research on this topic concentrates on the experiences of minority students at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs), little research concentrates on the experiences of minority students at Minority- Serving Institutions (MSIs). Current research argues that unparalleled social supports systems exist among MSIs that may be linked to increased degree completion for underrepresented students in engineering majors. However, few researchers have offered an in-depth description of the specific social supports and barriers Black and Hispanic students encounter at MSIs; particularly those students who major in engineering. The current study draws on the experiences of 106 Hispanic and 94 Black engineering sophomores (N=200) at four separate Minority-Serving Institutions. Participating sites include two Historically Black Universities (HBCUs) and two Hispanic- Serving Institutions (HSIs). The Engineering Fields Questionnaire was used to solicit responses regarding social support and social barriers. Additionally, one-on-one semistructured interviews were employed to collect qualitative data on how students come to value social support. Results indicated that Black and Hispanic students encounter both social support and social barriers as they navigate their engineering education. While students reported similar high values for the educational and career support received from families, friends, and faculty, Black and Hispanic students reported less value for the educational and career support received from classmates. Although Black HBCU students reported varying ways in which their faculty demonstrated support, these students frequently reported that their faculty prepared them for engineering careers though the promotion of graduate school and internships. In contrast, Hispanic students at HSIs frequently reported that their faculty demonstrated support by encouraging them to excel in their coursework and earn strong grades. This data supports prior research indicating that MSIs provide a supportive learning environment for underrepresented students by catering to the unique needs of their students.
Workshop makes recommendations to increase diversity in materials science and engineeringMRS BulletinWhite A2013Journal Article
The two-day workshop, supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy, and the Materials Research Society (MRS) Foundation, highlighted issues that affect ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and long-term success in the field. Ian Robertson, then Director of the Division of Materials Research at NSF, provided statistics in his opening remarks that underlined the under representation of ethnic minorities in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the US. Factors that contribute to the problem include unconscious biases, which affect hiring processes and underrepresented minority success in school and the workplace, and a lack of mentorship and role models. Students at minority-serving institutions may face particularly tough challenges. They tend to have relatively little exposure to STEM careers, limited knowledge of graduate school and career opportunities, and may be under prepared for undergraduate work in STEM.
Fostering success of ethnic and racial minorities in stem: The role of minority servingFostering success of ethnic and racial minorities in stem: The role of minority servingPalmer Robert T.2013Book
To maintain competitiveness in the global economy, United States policymakers and national leaders are increasing their attention to producing workers skilled in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Given the growing minority population in the country, it is critical that higher education policies, pedagogies, climates, and initiatives are effective in promoting racial and ethnic minority students’ educational attainment in STEM. Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) have shown efficacy in facilitating the success of racial and ethnic minority students in STEM and are collectively responsible for producing nearly one-third of the nation’s minority STEM graduates.
Cultivating diversity and competency in STEM: Challenges and remedies for removing virtual barriers to constructing diverse higher education communities of successJournal of Undergraduate Neuroscience EducationWhittaker Joseph2012Journal Article3592737
The need to increase the number of college graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national issue. As the demographics of the United States’ population grow increasingly more diverse, the recognition that students of color are disproportionately under-represented among those individuals successful at completing STEM degrees requires exigent and sustained intervention. Although a range of efforts and funding have been committed to increasing the success of under-represented minority (URM) students at primarily white, or majority, institutions, widespread progress has been slow. Simultaneously, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions have demonstrated disproportionate successes in graduating URM students with STEM degrees and those that proceed to completing graduate-level degrees in the sciences. The differential successes of particular institutions with promoting the achievement of diverse individuals in obtaining academic STEM degrees suggest that with committed and strategic leadership, advancements in creating academic communities that promote the success of a diverse range of students in STEM can be achieved in part through assessing and mitigating environmental barriers that impede success at majority institutions. In this paper, we address issues related to the engagement of URM students in majority settings and describe some efforts that have shown success for promoting diversity in STEM and highlight continuing issues and factors associated with cultivating diversity in academic STEM disciplines at majority institutions. Recommended efforts include addressing academic assistance, professional and cultural socialization issues and institutional environmental factors that are associated with success or lack thereof for URMs in STEM.
Enhancing geoscience education within a minority-serving preservice teacher populationJournal of Geoscience EducationEllins Katherine2012Journal Article
The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and Huston-Tillotson University collaborated on a proof of concept project to offer a geoscience course to undergraduate students and preservice teachers in order to expand the scope of geoscience education within the local minority student and teacher population. Students were exposed to rigorous Earth science materials, geoscientists conducting cutting-edge research, headliner topics, and pedagogical approaches to teaching. An evaluation of the data reveal that the course received mixed, but overall positive reviews and that student performance was mixed. Pre- and posttest results indicate that students made only modest gains. Half of the students performed at levels that matched our expectations and will be able to apply the geoscience knowledge and skills that they learned in an elementary school setting. The course contributed to the preparation of minority teachers to teach Earth science in Texas, filling a critical need. The authors, in collaboration with a minority-serving institution and as part of the preparation for a preservice teacher program, benefited from the experience; they subsequently applied the lessons learned to a program of professional development for minority-serving science teachers, the TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution. © 2012 National Association of Geoscience Teachers.
Improving recruitment and retention for engineering degree students in a rural highly underserved communityASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsHurtado Ivan2012Conference Proceedings
This paper presents an ongoing STEP-NSF and Department of Education-CCRAA funded project and recent findings. The project promotes the increase of engineering enrollment from secondary schools through the baccalaureate level among students from Northern New Mexico College (NNMC). NNMC is a minority serving institution located in a rural area with poverty levels below the level established by the Federal Government. Hispanic and Native American students constitute 73% and 11% of the college population, respectively. The paper presents the social and academic background of the students attending this College as well as some statistics from the main factors that have contributed to low historical retention. It describes later the strategies adopted for the last three years to improve recruitment, retention and graduation rates for engineering degrees: (1) prepare high school students for college-level conceptual analysis, problem solving and the value of experimental replication through a STEM Summer Camp using problem-based learning; (2) supplement college STEM curricula with programs aimed at tutoring college and dual credit students who are at risk with engineering related courses; (3) curriculum and laboratory development to address the high demand of Information Technology majors with industrial credentials through the Cisco® Academy; (4) mandatory advisement for all engineering students; (5) course pre-requisites redefinition to ease early access to the engineering content; and (6) early exposure to the world of engineering for mid school students through the Friday Academy, which include hands-on projects and supplemental tutoring. This paper presents some preliminary findings and the evolution of the different strategies to improve student retention and recruitment. Some practices are very promising and have started to be replicated in other STEM fields at the institution. Surveys and enrollment/retention data have been used to validate the findings. Student grades have been also used to compare the performance of our students to students worldwide, using the available Cisco® Academy's statistics
The Morhouse Mystique: Becoming a doctor at the nation's newest African American medical schoolThe Morhouse Mystique: Becoming a doctor at the nation's newest African American medical schoolGasman Marybeth2012Book
The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and highly regarded medical professionals. This books tells the engrossing history of this venerable institution. The school was founded just after the civil rights era, when major barriers prevented minorities from receiving adequate health care and black students were underrepresented in predominantly white medical schools. The Morehouse School of Medicine was conceived to address both problems-it was a minority-serving institution educating doctors who would practice in underserved communities. The school's history involves political maneuvering, skilled leadership, dedication to training African American physicians, and a mission of primary care in disadvantaged communities. Highlighting such influential leaders as former Health and Human Services Secretary Louis W. Sullivan, The Morehouse Mystique situates the school in the context of the history of medical education for blacks and race relations throughout the country. The book features excerpts from personal interviews with prominent African American doctors as well as with former presidents Jimmy Carter and George H. W. Bush, who reveal how local, state, and national politics shaped the development of black medical schools in the United States. The story of the Morehouse School of Medicine reflects the turbulent time in which it was founded and the lofty goals and accomplishments of a diverse group of African American leaders. Their tireless efforts in creating this eminent black institution changed the landscape of medical education and the racial and ethnic makeup of physicians and health care professions. © 2012 The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of initial environmental engineering sustainability course at a minority serving institutionSustainabilityClark Clayton2011Journal Article
A new Environmental Engineering Sustainability course was developed and offered in the spring 2011 semester for Florida A&M University in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department to provide foundational theory in the field of environmental sustainability and green engineering. This course marked the first time sustainability was offered in an environmental engineering course at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). The significance of this course is evident in the growth of the environmental sustainability field and the need for diversity in the engineering workforce; therefore, minority-serving institutions involved with improving diversity within science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) disciplines need to implement curriculum that parallels changing priorities in science and engineering. After its initial semester, the Environmental Engineering Sustainability course was rated highly by students and several conclusions were gathered from surveys and observations. One observation was that students were surprised by the breadth of topics related to sustainability across various disciplines. In another observation, students had not anticipated the relevancy and potential intricacies of life cycle analyses (LCAs) used in determining the qualitative aspect of sustainability. Lastly, most of the students would have liked to cover more topics, though lack of time prevented that during this first course offering. These general observations will be considered for future course offerings with enhancements such as providing the course through distance learning, including a more extensive design component, and collaborating with faculty from other universities to improve the course dissemination. All improvements to the course will support the purpose: to expand the concept and discipline of sustainability to all environmental engineering students who will become the 21st-century workforce and beyond.
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2011Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2011National Science Foundation 2011Government Publication
A new Environmental Engineering Sustainability course was developed and offered in the spring 2011 semester for Florida A&M University in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department to provide foundational theory in the field of environmental sustainability and green engineering. This course marked the first time sustainability was offered in an environmental engineering course at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). The significance of this course is evident in the growth of the environmental sustainability field and the need for diversity in the engineering workforce; therefore, minority-serving institutions involved with improving diversity within science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) disciplines need to implement curriculum that parallels changing priorities in science and engineering. After its initial semester, the Environmental Engineering Sustainability course was rated highly by students and several conclusions were gathered from surveys and observations. One observation was that students were surprised by the breadth of topics related to sustainability across various disciplines. In another observation, students had not anticipated the relevancy and potential intricacies of life cycle analyses (LCAs) used in determining the qualitative aspect of sustainability. Lastly, most of the students would have liked to cover more topics, though lack of time prevented that during this first course offering. These general observations will be considered for future course offerings with enhancements such as providing the course through distance learning, including a more extensive design component, and collaborating with faculty from other universities to improve the course dissemination. All improvements to the course will support the purpose: to expand the concept and discipline of sustainability to all environmental engineering students who will become the 21st-century workforce and beyond.
A National Analysis of Minorities in Science and Engineering Faculties at Research Universities, 2nd editionA National Analysis of Minorities in Science and Engineering Faculties at Research Universities, 2nd editionNelson DJ2010Books
The first national and most comprehensive demographic analysis to date of tenured and tenure track faculty in the top 100 departments of science and engineering disciplines shows that minorities and women are significantly underrepresented. There are relatively few tenured and tenure-track underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in these research university departments, even though a growing number and percentage of minorities are completing their Ph.D.s. Qualified minorities are not going to faculties of many science and engineering disciplines. However, in some engineering disciplines, there is a better match between the percentage of URMs in recent Ph.D. attainment versus among assistant professors. The percentage of URMs in science and engineering B.S. attainment generally continues to increase, but they are likely to find themselves without the minority faculty needed for optimal role models and mentors.
Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Medications: Does Patient-Provider Race/Ethnicity and Language Concordance Matter?Journal of General Internal MedicineTraylor A2010Journal Article20571929
Objective To examine the association of patient race/ethnicity and language and patient–physician race/ethnicity and language concordance on medication adherence rates for a large cohort of diabetes patients in an integrated delivery system. Conclusion Increasing opportunities for patient–physician race/ethnicity and language concordance may improve medication adherence for African American and Spanish-speaking patients, though a similar effect was not observed for Asian patients or English-proficient Hispanic patients.
AGEP alliances for graduate education and the professoriate: Info brief VIIIAGEP alliances for graduate education and the professoriate: Info brief VIIIGeorge YS2010Book - Electronic Version
One of the goals of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) Program, which began in 1998, is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities (URMs)1 receiving PhDs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). (See program description at bottom of page.2) Analyses of PhD recipient data from 68 AGEP institutions from 19 Alliances indicate that the AGEP Program has dramatically increased the annual number of URM PhD recipients in STEM fields. An analysis of URM PhD recipient data from 2000/01 to 2008/09 for 68 AGEP institutions from 19 Alliances indicates that the average annual number of URM PhD recipients in graduate programs in STEM increased from 609 (Early AGEP (2000/01 to 2002/03)) to 772 (Current AGEP (2006/07 to 2008/09)), an increase of 163 or 26.8%. During this same period, the average annual number of URM PhD recipients in graduate school programs in Natural Sciences & Engineering (NS&E) increased from 377 to 563, an increase of 186 or 49.3% (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Benefits and barriers: Racial dynamics of the undergraduate experienceThe Next Twenty-five Years: Affirmative Action in Higher Education in the United States and South AfricaHurtado Sylvia2010Book Chapter
The history of American higher education is punctuated by efforts to integrate its predominantly white institutions, and by the emergence of separate institutions to serve specific ethnic groups, including African Americans and American Indians. While the latter, minority-serving institutions are an important part of the country's higher-education system, the racial dynamics on the campuses of predominantly white four-year colleges and universities remain particularly complex. Several large-scale studies are now beginning to reveal more about the process of stratification by race, income, and ability, about the experiences of different racial or ethnic groups on college campuses, and about the barriers and benefits to educating a more diverse student population. Research points to the value of making diversity a central element of higher education's educational and service mission, and is beginning to shatter myths that have long justified palpable resistance to diversity. The purpose of this chapter is to share what we have learned about students and their experiences with diversity on college campuses, counter myths meant to legitimize the current hierarchy of institutions, and enumerate the features of diverse learning environments that can help us achieve the just and equitable society to which we aspire. © 2010 by The University of Michigan Press. All rights reserved.
Brilliant Disguise: An Empirical Analysis of a Social Experiment Banning Affirmative ActionIndiana Law JournalBowen DM2010Journal Article
... Therefore, one would anticipate that underrepresented minority students attending school in the states that are participating in the experiment of banning race-based admissions would suffer lower rates of internal and external stigma as well as less hostility in the form of racism from nonminority students. ... The goal of this Article is to scrutinize what happens when the judiciary and anti-affirmative action activist groups exploit color blindness to rationalize away affirmative action admissions policies. ... Students in this study who are at schools that have a critical mass of underrepresented minority students such that these students never find themselves racially isolated in the classroom, are least likely to: (1) encounter overt racism from faculty and students; (2) have their qualifications questioned; (3) feel pressure to succeed because of race; and (4) feel faculty have lower expectations of them. ... While the results of this study demonstrate that students of color who have never been racially isolated encounter the lowest rates of hostility and stigma, and students in affirmative action states are more likely to not be racially isolated, Onwuachi-Willig's work on stigma in law schools reveals that students in states with affirmative action do report more negative attitudes about race-based admissions.
College Diversity Experiences and Cognitive Development: A Meta-AnalysisReview of Educational ResearchBowman Nicholas2010Online Journal Article
In light of rapid demographic shifts and legal challenges to affirmative action in the United States, the issue of diversity on college campuses is of increasing importance. Most syntheses of research on diversity interactions and educational outcomes have focused on attitude change, such as reductions in prejudice or racial bias. Despite the presence of numerous studies on college diversity experiences and cognitive development, no research has systematically reviewed the literature on this topic. The current study uses meta-analysis to examine this relationship systematically. The findings suggest that several types of diversity experiences are positively related to several cognitive outcomes, but the magnitude of the effect varies substantially depending on the type of diversity experience, the type of cognitive outcome, and the study design. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Disequilibrium and Resolution: The Nonlinear Effects of Diversity Courses on Well-Being and Orientations toward DiversityThe Review of Higher EducationBowman N A2010Journal Article
Many incoming college students come from increasingly segregated public schools and neighborhoods (Orfield,Bachmeier, James, & Eitle, 1997; Orfield & Lee, 2006), so college experiences with racial/ethnic diversity are likely to be quite novel. As a result, diversity interactions may create a sense of disequilibrium among students, who must make sense of these new experiences and potential challenges to their current perspectives (Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002). Moreover, when institutional interventions with diversity are done poorly, these experiences can have negative consequences for student development (Milem, Chang,& Antonio, 2005). Most research on diversity coursework overlooks the difficulty of this process, instead focusing on the assessment of (often positive) effects that may eventually result from these experiences. This article examines the assumption that diversity coursework is uniformly beneficial by exploring the effects of diversity courses on positive diversity orientations and psychological well-being.
Diversity Science: Why and How Difference Makes a DifferencePsychological InquiryPlaut V2010Journal Article
This article proposes that addressing the complex ethnic and racial issues of the 21st century will require a diversity science. A diversity science will consider how people create, interpret, and maintain group differences among individuals, as well as the psychological and societal consequences of these distinctions. A diversity science will recognize that these significant social distinctions (in the case of this article, race and ethnicity) are not simply natural, neutral, or abstract. Instead they are created and re-created in the process of everyday social interactions that are grounded in historically derived ideas and beliefs about difference and in a set of practices and institutions that reflect these ideas and beliefs and that therefore shape psychological experience and behavior. According to this “sociocultural” framework, psychological experience and behavior, in turn, reinforce particular cultural and structural realities. As an initial step toward a diversity science, this article reviews the roots and consequences of two examples of how to think about difference, color blindness and multiculturalism. Through this sociocultural lens, intergroup behaviors can be understood as more than just products of individual prejudice. This article also proposes that a comprehensive diversity science requires a critical examination of majority group perspectives, minority group perspectives, and their dynamic interaction beyond the typical Black-White binary. Such a diversity science has the potential to help meaningfully inform race-related policy.
Improving Transfer Access to STEM Bachelor’s Degrees at HSI's through the America COMPETES ActImproving transfer access to STEM bachelor’s degrees at HSI's through the America COMPETES ActDowd AC2010University Document Online
The America COMPETES Act authorized by Congress in 2007 directs the National Science foundation to develop a Hispanic Serving Institutions Undergraduate Initiative, with the goal of increasing Latina and Latino1 degree completion in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Appropriations through this act substantially increase NSF’s budget in traditional funding areas such as teacher preparation, research fellowships and scholarships, and laboratory facilities. Perhaps even more importantly, additional monies are allocated for curriculum development, experiential learning, and program evaluation, thereby providing greatly needed resources to spur pedagogical innovation. This report is intended to inform the capacity-building effort by highlighting the role of Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) in producing Latino STEM baccalaureates. It indicates a greater share of Latino students enrolled at HSIs earn degrees in key majors, such as computer science, mathematics, and engineering, than do their counterparts at non-HSIs. However, Latino students who transferred from community colleges to HSIs had lower rates of participation in these fields of study. Given the large number of Latinos in community colleges, transfer access to these fields must be increased in order to produce more Latino STEM baccalaureates.
Key DefinitionsHandbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating a Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher EducationAAAS 2010Single Chapter of Compiled Work
Extensively defines and describes the following terms and concepts, inter alia: race-, ethnicity-, and gender-conscious, -exclusive and -neutral policies; intentional and impact discrimination; disparate treatment; disparate impact; strict, intermediate and rational basis scrutiny; diversity interests; remedial interests; critical mass and racial, ethnic, or gender balancing; underrepresented students; individualized, holistic review; inclusive conduct and multi-cultural skills.
Managing Diversity in U.S. Federal Agencies: Effects of Diversity and Diversity Management on Employee Perceptions of Organizational PerformancePublic Administration ReviewChoi S2010Journal Article
Diversity in the workplace is a central issue for contemporary organizational management. Concomitantly, managing increased diversity deserves greater concern in public, private, and nonprofit organizations. The authors address the effects of diversity and diversity management on employee perceptions of organizational performance in U.S. federal agencies by developing measures of three variables: diversity, diversity management, and perceived organizational performance. Drawing from the Central Personnel Data File and the 2004 Federal Human Capital Survey, their findings suggest that racial diversity relates negatively to organizational performance. When moderated by diversity management policies and practices and team processes, however, racial diversity correlates positively with organizational performance. Gender and age diversity and their interactions with contextual variables produce mixed results, suggesting that gender and age diversity reflect more complicated relationships. This article provides evidence for several benefits derived from effectively managing diversity.
Managing Diversity: How Organization Efforts to Support Diversity Moderate the Effects of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Affective CommitmentPersonnel PsychologyTriana M2010Journal Article
Using the interactional model of cultural diversity, we examined whether the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination on affective commitment can be mitigated by perceived organizational efforts to support diversity. Across 3 studies, we found that perceptions of workplace racial discrimination are negatively related to affective commitment. In 2 out of 3 studies, this negative relationship was attenuated as employees perceived more organizational efforts to support diversity. Studies 1 (mostly Whites) and 2 (mostly Hispanics) showed that organizational efforts to support diversity attenuate the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination on affective commitment. However, in Study 3 (African Americans), results showed that when organizational efforts to support diversity are high, the negative relationship between perceived racial discrimination and affective commitment became stronger. Studies 2 and 3 also extended these results by showing that the interaction of perceived racial discrimination and organizational efforts to support diversity indirectly influences turnover intent.
Preface and Project Overview; Historical ContextHandbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating a Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher EducationAAAS 2010Single Chapter of Compiled Work
These materials were developed for a project led by the American Association for the Advancement of Science ("AAAS"), with participation by the Association of American Universities ("AAU"). The project addresses a pressing issue posed by leaders of industry, academia, government and philanthropy: How can policy leaders of our nation's colleges and universities increase the racial and gender diversity of their faculties and student bodies so as to champion and sustain effective science, technology, engineering and mathematics ("STEM") programs in what often seems to be an overly complicated, barrier-laden, and hostile legal environment? This issue goes to the heart of what our nation needs to do in the 21st Century to continue its leadership position in higher education, innovation, and the global economy. Successfully addressing this issue is vital if we are to maintain our national security and democracy; and to be successful, diversity efforts must be legally sustainable. AAAS and AAU have engaged on this issue in an effort to influence policy and practice regarding our nation's critical need for greater access by racial minorities and women to educational opportunities and academic careers in STEM fields. This national need reflects a practical reality, which does not align with any particular political view. AAAS and AAU consider STEM fields a special case because: (1) science and engineering are national assets that drive innovation, economic strength, leadership and our national security; (2) the United States has been a leader in producing research and development ("R&D") and the personnel responsible for its renewal; and (3) the federal investment in STEM fields continues to shape what colleges and universities do and what K-12 schools teach. Moreover, the Obama Administration has announced an aggressive agenda focused on environmental stewardship, alternative energy, and health promotion that depends on robust research and development investments as a key to economic recovery.
Race- and Gender-Neutral AlternativesHandbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating a Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher EducationAAAS 2010Single Chapter of Compiled Work
Having a general understanding of neutral alternatives as a foundation for examining student and faculty policies in more detail is important for a number of reasons. First, and as explained further in subsequent sections, the consideration of such alternatives is a clear requirement as a matter of federal law -- under constitutional principles, as well as under Titles VI, VII and IX. In jurisdictions where race and gender may be considered appropriately, neutral approaches may reduce reliance on race and gender in some programs, making consideration of race and gender in other programs easier to justify. Second, neutral alternatives will often directly advance institutional diversity goals associated with mission-driven aims, and correspondingly may foster more inclusive and broadly diverse faculties and student bodies, without triggering strict scrutiny under constitutional or statutory constraints. In addition, these criteria may be used in jurisdictions where race, ethnicity and gender may not be considered. (They can help achieve independently important, non-race, -ethnicity, and –gender-conscious institutional goals, even as they also have the ancillary benefit of increasing racial, ethnic, and gender diversity.) Two key race-, ethnicity- and gender-neutral criteria are a record of inclusive conduct and multi-cultural skills and socio-economic status. (There are many others such as urban and rural geographic background; first in family to attend a four-year college or pursue STEM fields; other significant disadvantage in pursuit of or success in higher education generally or STEM fields in particular; an institution's surrounding community; etc.)
Science and Engineering Labor ForceScience and Engineering Indicators 2010National Science Foundation 2010Government Publication
This growth in the S&E labor force was largely made possible by three factors: (1) increases in S&E degrees earned by both native and foreign-born students, (2) both temporary and permanent migration to the United States of those with foreign S&E education, and (3) the relatively small numbers of scientists and engineers old enough to retire. Many have expressed concerns (see National Science Board 2003) that changes in any or all of these factors may limit the future growth of the S&E labor force in the United States. This chapter has four major sections. The first provides a general profile of the U.S. S&E labor force. This includes demographic characteristics (population size, sex, nativity, and race/ethnicity). It also covers educational backgrounds, earnings, places of employment, occupations, and whether the S&E labor force makes use of S&E training.
The business case for diversity and the perverse practice of matching employees to customersPersonnel ReviewBendick M2010Journal Article
The typical “business case” for workforce diversity management in the USA implies that matching the demographic characteristics of sellers to buyers increases firms' productivity and profitability. This paper aims to explore the consequences for both employers and employees of following that guidance. n both cases analyzed, a badly conceived business case for diversity perversely translated into discriminatory employment practices, starting with stereotype-based segregation in work assignments and spreading to consequent inequality in other employment outcomes such as earnings and promotions. Such patterns illegally limit employment opportunities for women and race/ethnic minorities. Simultaneously, they fail to promote customer relationships and sales.
The Compelling Case for DiversityHandbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating a Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher EducationAAAS 2010Single Chapter of Compiled Work
For decades, the higher education community has recognized the imperative of achieving diversity among students and faculty as a necessary foundation for attaining each institution's mission-driven core educational goals. That mission encompasses delivery of the best education to all of the institution's students, production of excellent research to increase knowledge and enrich learning, and service in support of the nation's most critical needs. Although established in a variety of ways, several central elements most often characterize diversity-related aims, particularly in the rapidly changing 21st Century world: (1) improving educational outcomes, both with respect to knowledge and skills, and civic engagement; (2) establishing foundations for a better prepared (and ultimately more productive) workforce that will support a more robust national and international economy; (3) conducting excellent technology research that will enable industry to serve the needs of a diverse and global society, thereby supporting innovation, economic strength and national security; and (4) enhancing the knowledge and skills of future military and national security personnel, and thus enhancing national defense at home and abroad. With respect to the importance of these goals, there is, at the end of the first decade of the 21st Century, little meaningful debate. There is likewise little debate that institutions of higher learning may properly conclude that broadly-defined "diverse" faculties and student bodies are critical to achieving these goals. This issue goes to the heart of what our nation needs to do in the 21st Century to continue its leadership position in higher education, innovation, and the global economy. Successfully addressing this issue is vital if we are to maintain our national security and democracy; and to be successful, diversity efforts must be legally sustainable. AAAS and AAU have engaged on this issue in an effort to influence policy and practice regarding our nation's critical need for greater access by racial minorities and women to educational opportunities and academic careers in STEM fields. This national need reflects a practical reality, which does not align with any particular political view. AAAS and AAU consider STEM fields a special case because: (1) science and engineering are national assets that drive innovation, economic strength, leadership and our national security; (2) the United States has been a leader in producing research and development ("R&D") and the personnel responsible for its renewal; and (3) the federal investment in STEM fields continues to shape what colleges and universities do and what K-12 schools teach. Moreover, the Obama Administration has announced an aggressive agenda focused on environmental stewardship, alternative energy, and health promotion that depends on robust research and development investments as a key to economic recovery
The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program: A model for broadening participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences through effective partnerships with minority-serving institutionsJournal of Geoscience EducationStassun Keivan2010Journal Article
We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward significantly broadening the participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences. The program couples targeted recruitment with active retention strategies, and is built upon a clearly defined structure that is flexible enough to address individual student needs while maintaining clearly communicated baseline standards for student performance. A key precept of the program&s philosophy is to eliminate passivity in student mentoring; students are deliberately groomed to successfully transition into the PhD program through active involvement in research experiences with future PhD advisers, coursework that demonstrates competency in core PhD subject areas, and frequent interactions with joint mentoring committees. This approach allows student progress and performance to be monitored and evaluated in a more holistic manner than usually afforded by limited metrics such as standardized tests. Since its inception in 2004, the program has attracted a total of 35 students, 32 of them underrepresented minorities, 60% female, with a retention rate of 91%. Recent research indicates that minority students are nearly twice as likely as non-minority students to seek a Masters degree en route to the PhD. In essence, the Bridge program described here builds upon this increasingly important pathway, with a dedicated mentoring process designed to ensure that the Masters-to-PhD transition is a successful one.
The impact of college student socialization, social class, and race on need for cognitionNew Directions for Institutional ResearchPadgett R D2010Journal Article
Using longitudinal data, this chapter expands the use of Weidman’s Model of Undergraduate Socialization by applying it to components of college student socialization, social class, and race and how these elements work together to influence need for cognition.
The impact of workplace diversity on the working environment and climate in engineering organizations: A study of ethnicity, culture, spiritual belief, and genderDissertation Abstracts International Section AHassan M2010Journal Article
A diverse workforce introduces varying skills, ideas, and perspectives to an organization; promoting these qualities could improve a firm's output. Acknowledging the potential benefits, it became crucial for organizations to create relationships that respect mutual interests and maintain a culture of inclusion, expressed internally through workplace diversity. The challenge is to equip business leaders with the tools they need to assess workplace diversity and create diversity initiatives to leverage the talents of the diverse workforce. The findings of the study were (a) Perceptions of workplace diversity do not significantly differ by employees' ethnic backgrounds, (b) Perceptions of workplace diversity do not significantly differ by employees' cultural backgrounds
The role of the dental school environment in promoting greater student diversityJournal of Dental EducationPendelton D2010Journal Article20930235
This chapter describes the strategies implemented by one dental school during the past decade to establish an environment that supports a culture of diversity. The school audited its initial diversity milieu, authored a strategic plan for diversity, fully participated in university-wide diversity initiatives, and created an administrative infrastructure for underrepresented minority (URM) student support. Mentoring and counseling programs were established for URM students, and a schoolwide diversity committee was formed to make cultural competence a high priority for all students, faculty, and staff. URM faculty members were recruited and retained through a minority faculty development program. Student professional organizations were established and supported by mentoring partnerships with members of the corresponding organizations in the practicing community. The school’s diversity culture is continuously evaluated and nurtured within the context of evolving human interactions in society, dental education, and dental practice.
The Social Mission of Medical Education: Ranking the SchoolsAnnals of Internal MedicineMullan F2010Journal Article20547907
The basic purpose of medical schools is to educate physicians to care for the national population. Fulfilling this goal requires an adequate number of primary care physicians, adequate distribution of physicians to underserved areas, and a sufficient number of minority physicians in the workforce. Conclusion: Medical schools vary substantially in their contribution to the social mission of medical education. School rankings based on the social mission score differ from those that use research funding and subjective assessments of school reputation. These findings suggest that initiatives at the medical school level could increase the proportion of physicians who practice primary care, work in underserved areas, and are underrepresented minorities.
Variables associated with full-time faculty appointment among contemporary U.S. Medical school graduates: implications for academic medicine workforce diversityAcademic MedicineAndriole D2010Journal Article20592523
The authors sought to identify variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointment among recent medical graduates. With institutional review board approval, the authors developed a database of individualized records for six midwestern medical schools' 1997-2002 graduates. Using multivariate logistic regression, they identified variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointment from among demographic, medical-school-related, and career-intention variables. They report adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase representation of women graduates in academic medicine seem to have met with greater success than efforts to increase representation of URM graduates. Greater participation of URM students in MD/PhD programs and in interventions during medical school that promote interest in academic medicine careers may increase URM graduates' representation in academic medicine.
Workforce Diversity in the New Millennium: Prospects for ResearchReview of Public Personnel AdministrationPitts D2010Journal Article
A broad overview of the literature on diversity is provided, followed by a more focused discussion of empirical research on employment diversity, diversity management, and organizational outputs and outcomes. It is found that although diversity issues remain salient to public administration scholarship, usable knowledge is in short supply. A substantial share of this research can be categorized as focusing on representative bureaucracy issues. Few empirical studies test diversity effects or hypotheses. Some empirical work explains factors beyond the control of human resource policies or practicing managers, which makes findings less useful to practitioners. The research suffers from inadequate data, little innovation in methodology, and insufficient attention to empirical connections between diversity and organizational results.
A Call for Training the Trainers: Focus on Mentoring to Enhance Diversity in Mental Health ResearchAmerican Journal of Public HealthJeste D2009Journal Article19246662
There is a widening disparity between the proportion of ethnic minority Americans in the population and the number of researchers from these minority groups. One major obstacle in this arena relates to a dearth of mentors for such trainees. The present academic settings are not optimal for development and sustenance of research mentors, especially for mentees from underrepresented minority ethnic groups. Mentoring skills can and should be evaluated and enhanced. Universities, medical schools, and funding agencies need to join hands and implement national- and local-level programs to help develop and reward mentors of junior scientists from ethnic minority groups.
A qualitative investigation of White students’ perceptions of diversity. Journal of Diversity in Higher EducationBanks KH2009Journal Article
Diversity is used in countless vision statements of institutions of higher learning. Yet, it is critical to examine how students understand the concept and conceptualize their personal involvement. Given that the current population of college students is predominantly White, it is important to examine this population. The current sample consisted of 151 self-identified White college students (61 men and 90 women) from a predominantly White, residential, liberal arts college. Responses to 2 open-ended questions—“In your own words, express how you would define the term diversity?” and “How do Whites fit into your definition of diversity?”—were analyzed in Atlas.ti 5.0 using an open coding method. Race was the most common definition of diversity (61%). A smaller number of students conceptualized diversity as involving interaction across differences (41.7%). The majority of the respondents (80%) felt Whites have a role in diversity, but the nature of that role varied. Findings suggest that it is helpful to have clear institutional definitions of diversity to provide multiple entry points and increase the likelihood that White students will engage in campus diversity initiatives.
AGEP alliances for graduate education and the professoriate: Info brief VIIAGEP alliances for graduate education and the professoriate: Info brief VIIGeorge YS2009Book - Electronic Version
One of the goals of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) Program, which began in 1998, is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities (URMs)1 receiving PhDs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. (See program description below.2) Analyses of PhD recipient data from 66 AGEP institutions from 21 Alliances indicate that the AGEP Program has dramatically increased the annual number of URMs receiving PhDs in STEM fields. An analysis of URM PhD recipients’ data from 2000/01 to 2007/08 for 66 AGEP institutions from 21 Alliances indicated that the average annual number of PhDs awarded to URMs in STEM increased from 623 to 834, an increase of 211 or 33.9%. During this same period, the average annual number of PhDs awarded to URM in Natural Sciences & Engineering (NS&E) increased from 382 to 573, an increase of 191 or 50.0% (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Bridges to the Doctorate: mentored transition to successful completion of doctoral study for underrepresented minorities in nursing scienceNursing Outlooket al 2009Journal Article19447237
Nursing has a shortage of doctorally-prepared underrepresented minority (URM) scientists/faculty. We describe a five-year University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Bridges program for URM master’s students’ transition to doctoral study and factors in retention/graduation from the PhD program. Four master’ students from two partner schools were recruited/appointed per year and assigned UIC faculty advisors. They completed 10 UIC credits during master’s study and were mentored by Bridges faculty. Administrative and financial support was provided during transition and doctoral study. Partner schools’ faculty formed research dyads with UIC faculty. Seventeen Bridges students were appointed to the Bridges program: 12 were admitted to the UIC PhD program since 2004 and one graduated in 2007. Eight Bridges faculty research dyads published 5 articles and submitted 1 NIH R03 application. Mentored transition from master’s through doctoral program completion and administrative/financial support for students were key factors in program success. Faculty research dyads enhanced the research climate in partner schools.
Building infrastructure for HIV/AIDS and mental health research at institutions serving minoritiesAmerican Journal of Public HealthYanagihara R2009Journal Article19246667
The National Institutes of Health and other funding agencies have initiated various programs aimed at enhancing diversity in the workforces for health care delivery and biomedical research. These programs have resulted in improvements in research infrastructure and moderate successes in increasing, retaining, and strengthening the pool of underrepresented minority students and junior faculty at resource-poor institutions serving minorities. We discuss some of the barriers and obstacles confronting such institutions, and the enablers and facilitators that may ameliorate or overcome such barriers. Although our analysis is drawn from lessons learned at an institution serving a largely Asian and Pacific Islander population, analogous situations may be found for other institutions serving minorities.
Can Higher Education Meet the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse and Global Society? Campus Diversity and Cross-Cultural Workforce CompetenciesHarvard Educational ReviewJayakumar U2009Journal Article
A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. In this article, Uma Jayakumar investigates the relationship between white individuals' exposure to racial diversity during college and their postcollege cross-cultural workforce competencies. Using survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, housed in the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles, the author uses structural equation modeling to show that for whites from both segregated and diverse precollege neighborhoods, their postcollege leadership skills and level of pluralistic orientation are either directly or indirectly related to the structural diversity and racial climate of their postsecondary institutions, as well as their level of cross-racial interaction during the college years. The author concludes that postsecondary institutions may provide lasting benefits to white students by promoting a positive racial climate for a racially diverse student body. These findings support the theory put forth by Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, and Gurin (2002) for explaining the benefits of racial diversity at the postsecondary level. (Contains 1 table, 3 figures, and 14 notes.)
Conflict and Cooperation in Diverse WorkgroupsJournal of Social IssuesKing EB2009Journal Article
This article reviews research examining the influence of diversity on conflict and cooperation within the context of the workplace. In particular, we describe how heterogeneity in surface characteristics, such as race and gender, as well as deeper characteristics, such as affect, experience, and knowledge, relate to key workgroup processes and outcomes. Of particular interest is the disparate strength and directionality of the effects reported in the literature. In an effort to provide clarity to the confusion, we emphasize the roles of group longevity and the type of diversity being examined. In addition, we recommend greater specificity with respect to the particular group processes and outcomes being examined.
Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounterSocial Sciences and MedicineTeal CR2009Journal Article19019520
Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will present a model of culturally competent communication that offers a framework of studying cultural competence ‘in action.’ First, we describe four critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter – communication repertoire, situational awareness, adaptability, and knowledge about core cultural issues. We present a model of culturally competent physician communication that integrates existing frameworks for cultural competence in patient care with models of effective patient-centered communication. The culturally competent communication model includes five communication skills that are depicted as elements of a set in which acquisition of more skills corresponds to increasing complexity and culturally competent communication. The culturally competent communication model utilizes each of the four critical elements to fully develop each skill and apply increasingly sophisticated, contextually appropriate communication behaviors to engage with culturally different patients in complex interactions. It is designed to foster maximum physician sensitivity to cultural variation in patients as the foundation of physician-communication competence in interacting with patients.
Dealing with the Realities of Race and Ethnicity: A Bio-Ethics Centered Argument in Favor of Race-Based Genetics ResearchHouston Law ReviewMalinowski MJ2009Journal Article
...This Article proposes that responsible race-based genetics biomedical research - basic, clinical, and epidemiological - is possible and even desirable. A primary premise for the argument is that the concepts of race and ethnicity, like genetic science, are neither innately good nor bad. Contrary to the dominant path followed by law academics,which is to approach race-based research from antidiscrimination jurisprudence, this Article approaches race-based research with the goal of promoting thoughtful bioethics compliance and with the law-policy mindset of inclusion analogous to the goals of affirmative action.This position is supported with arguments based on research pragmatism, genetic science, and applied bioethics - namely, regulations to protect human subjects and the fundamental principals documented in the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report...
Demographic Diversity in the Boardroom: Mediators of the Board Diversity-Firm Performance RelationshipJournal of Management StudiesMiller T2009Journal Article
Whereas the majority of research on board diversity explores the direct relationship between racial and gender diversity and firm performance, this paper investigates mediators that explain how board diversity is related to firm performance. Grounded in signaling theory and the behavioral theory of the firm, we suggest that this relationship operates through two mediators: firm reputation and innovation. In a sample of Fortune 500 firms, we find a positive relationship between board racial diversity and both firm reputation and innovation. We find that reputation and innovation both partially mediate the relationship between board racial diversity and firm performance. In addition, we find a positive relationship between board gender diversity and innovation.
Development of a dynamic model to guide health disparities researchNursing OutlookRew L2009Journal Article19447233
Various populations experience health disparities related to risk factors such as gender, race or ethnicity, educational level, income level, and geographic location. These populations often experience barriers to access and utilization of services, which can lead to adverse health outcomes. Health promotion interventions developed within the context of communities represent resources that may offer protection to these populations. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a conceptual model for the study of health disparities. The model, based on a review of literature, was developed to guide 19 pilot studies funded by the Texas-New Mexico P20 Southwest Partnership Center for Nursing Research on Health Disparities. Reflection on these studies, their respective methodologies, and findings resulted in a revised model to guide further studies of communities experiencing health disparities.
Diversity in Academic Biomedicine: An Evaluation of Education and Career Outcomes with Implications for PolicyDiversity in academic biomedicine: An evaluation of education and career outcomes with implications for policyet al 2009University Document Online
Currently, the U.S. population is undergoing major racial and ethnic demographic shifts that could affect the pool of individuals interested in pursuing a career in biomedical research. To achieve its mission of improving health, the National Institutes of Health must recruit and train outstanding individuals for the biomedical workforce. In this study, we examined the educational transition rates in the biomedical sciences by gender, race, and ethnicity, from high school to academic career outcomes. Using a number of educational databases, we investigated gender and racial/ethnic representation at typical educational and career milestones en route to faculty careers in biomedicine. We then employed multivariate regression methods to examine faculty career outcomes, using the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Doctorate Recipients. We find that while transitions between milestones are distinctive by gender and race/ethnicity, the transitions between high school and college and between college and graduate school are critical points at which underrepresented minorities are lost from the biomedical pipeline, suggesting some specific targets for policy intervention.
Diversity is in the eye of the beholder: How majority and minority group members define diversityDiversity is in the eye of the beholder: How majority and minority group members define diversity (IRLE Working Paper 2009-17)Unzueta MM2009University Document Online
This paper suggests that the concept of diversity carries different meanings for majority (e.g., men, Whites) and minority (e.g., women, racial minorities) group members. Because diversity is in-group relevant for minority but not majority group members, group-interest may motivate minority but not majority group members to define diversity in ways that maximize benefits for the in-group. One such way is for minorities to define diversity in a relatively complex manner – that is, as entailing both the numerical and structural representation of minorities in an organization. Majority group members, on the other hand, since they are not motivated by group-interest, may define diversity as simply entailing minorities’ numerical representation. Four studies tested these hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Does Diversity Pay?: Race, Gender, and the Business Case for DiversityAmerican Sociological ReviewHerring Cedric2009Journal Article
The value-in-diversity perspective argues that a diverse workforce, relative to a homogeneous one, is generally beneficial for business, including but not limited to corporate profits and earnings. This is in contrast to other accounts that view diversity as either nonconsequential to business success or actually detrimental by creating conflict, undermining cohesion, and thus decreasing productivity. Using data from the 1996 to 1997 National Organizations Survey, a national sample of for-profit business organizations, this article tests eight hypotheses derived from the value-in-diversity thesis. The results support seven of these hypotheses: racial diversity is associated with increased sales revenue, more customers, greater market share, and greater relative profits. Gender diversity is associated with increased sales revenue, more customers, and greater relative profits. I discuss the implications of these findings relative to alternative views of diversity in the workplace.
Effects of Diversity Experiences on Critical Thinking Skills: Who Benefits?Effects of diversity experiences on critical thinking skills: Who benefits?Loes C2009University Document Online
This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity had significant general effects on critical thinking. However, interactional diversity did positively influence critical thinking skills for white students and for students who were the least well prepared academically for college.
How leaky is the health career pipeline? Minority student achievement in college gateway coursesAcad MedAlexander C2009Journal Article19474563
PURPOSE: To determine whether underrepresented minority (URM) students receive lower grades than do non-URM students in college prehealth gateway courses; the extent to which lower grade performance might be explained by the differences in precollege academic achievement; and whether URM students are less likely than non-URM students to persist in completing at least four gateway courses. METHOD: Administrative data were obtained from six California colleges on 15,000 college students who matriculated in the 1999-2000 or 2000-2001 academic years and enrolled in at least one college course required for application to medical or dental school ("gateway" courses). Students were compared across ethnic groups in gateway course grade performance and persistence in completing at least four gateway courses, using regression methods to control for students' college admission test scores and caliber of high school attended. RESULTS: URM students received significantly lower grades on average in gateway courses than did white students. This gap persisted after adjusting for measures of prior academic performance. However, URM students were nearly as likely as white students to persist in completing at least four gateway courses. After accounting for the lower grades of URM students in their initial classes, URM students were more likely than white students to complete four or more gateway courses. CONCLUSIONS: URM students experienced academic challenges, but many persist in their prehealth courses despite these challenges. Interventions at the college level to support URM student performance in gateway courses are particularly important for increasing the diversity of medical and dental schools.
Improving the diversity climate in academic medicine: faculty perceptions as a catalyst for institutional changeAcad Medet al 2009Journal Article19116484
PURPOSE: To assess perceptions of underrepresented minority (URM) and majority faculty physicians regarding an institution's diversity climate, and to identify potential improvement strategies. METHOD: The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of tenure-track physicians at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from June 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005; they measured faculty perceptions of bias in department/division operational activities, professional satisfaction, career networking, mentorship, and intentions to stay in academia, and they examined associations between race/ethnicity and faculty perceptions using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 703 eligible faculty, 352 (50.1%) returned surveys. Fewer than one third of respondents reported experiences of bias in department/division activities; however, URM faculty were less likely than majority faculty to believe faculty recruitment is unbiased (21.1% versus 50.6%, P = .006). A minority of respondents were satisfied with institutional support for professional development. URM faculty were nearly four times less likely than majority faculty to report satisfaction with racial/ethnic diversity (12% versus 47.1%, P = .001) and three times less likely to believe networking included minorities (9.3% versus 32.6%, P = .014). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the quality of mentorship. More than 80% of respondents believed they would be in academic medicine in five years. However, URM faculty were less likely to report they would be at their current institution in five years (42.6% versus 70.5%, P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Perceptions of the institution's diversity climate were poor for most physician faculty and were worse for URM faculty, highlighting the need for more transparent and diversity-sensitive recruitment, promotion, and networking policies/practices.
Multiculturalism and subjective happiness as mediated by cultural and relational variablesCultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority PsychologyLe TN2009Journal Article19594259
A diverse ethnic context and an increasing immigrant youth population will soon become the reality across the entire U.S. demographic landscape. Research has suggested that a multicultural context positively influences ethnic minority and immigrant youth by fostering ethnic identity and psychosocial development. However, it is unknown whether and how perceived multiculturalism can affect positive youth outcomes such as life satisfaction and subjective happiness. This study explored perceived school multiculturalism among 338 ethnic minority and immigrant youth, and found a positive relation between perceived school multiculturalism and subjective happiness with full mediation by ethnocultural empathy for African Americans, Asians, males, and females. Although school multiculturalism was also predictive of ethnocultural empathy for Hispanics, ethnocultural empathy in turn, was not significantly predictive of subjective happiness. Taken together, these results suggest that one way to facilitate psychological growth and flourishing among ethnic minority youth is to encourage multiculturalism in school settings.
Racial Diversity Matters: The Impact of Diversity-Related Student Engagement and Institutional ContextAmerican Educational Research JournalDenson N2009Journal Article
This study addressed two questions: (a) Do different forms of campus racial diversity contribute uniquely to students’ learning and educational experiences when they are simultaneously tested utilizing multilevel modeling? (b) Does a campus where students take greater advantage of those diversity opportunities have independent positive effects on students’ learning? Consideration of racial diversity extended beyond student composition and included social and curricular engagement. Results suggest that benefits associated with diversity may be more far-reaching than previously documented. Not only do students benefit from engaging with racial diversity through related knowledge acquisition or cross-racial interaction but also from being enrolled on a campus where other students are more engaged with those forms of diversity, irrespective of their own level of engagement.
Racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of brain tumorsJournal of NeuroncologyCurry WT2009Journal Article19430880
Disparities in American health care based on socially-defined patient characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position are well-documented. We review differences and disparities in incidence, pathobiology, processes and outcomes of care, and survival based on social factors for brain tumors of all histologies. In the US, black patients have lower incidences of most brain tumor types and lower-income patients have lower incidences of low grade glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma; ascertainment bias may contribute to these findings. Pathogenetic differences between malignant gliomas in patients of different races have been demonstrated, but their clinical significance is unclear. Patients in disadvantaged groups are less often treated by high-volume providers. Mortality and morbidity of initial treatment are higher for brain tumor patients in disadvantaged groups, and they present with markers of more severe disease. Long term survival differences between malignant glioma patients of different races have not yet been shown. Clinical trial enrollment appears to be lower among brain tumor patients from disadvantaged groups. We propose future research both to better define disparities and to alleviate them.
Taking a "hands on" approach to diversity in higher education: A critical-dialogic model for effective intergroup interactionAnalyses of Social Issues and Public PolicySorensen N2009Journal Article
This article reviews divergent empirical evidence on interracial contact. While research on diversity in higher education provides ample evidence for the educational benefits of engaging with diversity in informal interactions or courses, experimental and naturalistic studies in social psychology on interracial interactions reveal a complicated picture, showing what appear to be both positive and negative effects. Rather than addressing the question of whether or not to promote interracial interactions on campus, we present a critical-dialogic model of intergroup dialogue that centers on communication processes as an avenue toward intergroup relationships, understanding, and collaboration. Prior research and preliminary results from a nine-university research collaboration provide strong empirical support for the proposed model. We conclude with program and policy considerations for higher education institutions interested in promoting meaningful intergroup interaction.
The challenge of increasing minority-group professional representation in the United States: intriguing findings International Journal of Human Resource ManagementButtner E2009Journal Article
minority-group Americans continue to be under-represented in professional occupations. Six propositions for low minority-group professional presence in US organizations are that under-representation is due to leader racial insensitivity, discrimination, the (small) pipeline of minority-group professional employees, (un)equal opportunity theory, rational person economic theory, and low organizational diversity strategic priority. We describe and explore these six arguments with related empirical tests. Results indicated that leader-rated importance of cultural change, above and beyond leader racial awareness, influenced representation. The more specific strategies of diversity recruitment and provision of performance feedback also predicted minority-group representation, while diversity as an organizational strategic priority did not. We discuss the implications of these findings and present directions for future research.
The Joint Admission Medical Program: a statewide approach to expanding medical education and career opportunities for disadvantaged studentsAcad MedDalley B2009Journal Article19881424
In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006). The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future.
The River Runs Dry: When Title VI Trumps State Anti-Affirmative Action LawsUniversity of Pennsylvania Law ReviewWest-Faulcon Kimberly2009Journal Article
Opponents of affirmative action are waging a national battle over race conscious admissions through state ballot initiatives like California’s Proposition 209, Washington’s Initiative 200, Michigan’s Proposal 2, and Nebraska’s Initiative 424. To comply with these new voter-approved, anti– affirmative action laws, public universities have eliminated their affirmative action policies, and this has had a negative impact on minority admissions rates. At the same time, federal antidiscrimination law—Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implementing regulations—prohibits these universities from using selection criteria that have the effect of discriminating against applicants on the basis of their race. Legal scholars have largely ignored this tension between state anti–affirmative action laws and federal antidiscrimination law. Consequently, with seemingly little regard for Title VI federal civil rights law, public universities have been prone to assume that “affirmative action–less” admissions policies and plunging minority admissions are the inevitable outcome of compliance with state anti–affirmative action laws. At an affirmative action–less university, the river runs dry—the institution virtually stops admitting certain racial groups and presumes that state anti–affirmative action laws dictate such a result. This Article challenges this framing. Its point of departure is to explain how the prominent role of the SAT in selective college admissions, dictated in large measure by its importance in college ranking and financial bond-rating systems, creates an incentive for universities to adopt “minority-deficiency” over “test-deficiency” explanations for racial differences in SAT scores. The Article then endeavors to shift the focus from the state law anti-“preference” constraints placed on public universities to the federal antidiscrimination constraints that Title VI imposes on the same institutions. It considers whether universities that completely abolish affirmative action to comply with state anti–affirmative action initiatives may actually be breaking the law with respect to Title VI. To demonstrate this point, this Article uses statistical tests for identifying Title VI disparate impact—“effect discrimination”— to analyze selective California and Washington public university admissions cycles after the enactment of anti–affirmative action laws. It finds racial disparities in admissions to affirmative action–less universities of sufficient magnitude that, if unjustified, could establish that an institution has a compelling interest in considering race to comply with federal antidiscrimination law. An important conclusion flows from this analysis. State anti– affirmative action laws may permit the consideration of race if undertaken to remedy federal “racial effect discrimination.”
The Where-How of Leadership Emergence (WHOLE) Landscape: Charting Emergent Collective LeadershipSSRNJohnson NL2009Online Journal Article
Leadership resources are constantly adapting to the challenge of the dynamic and complex systems in which they must function. To understand the changing leadership types and to better guide the development of new leadership resources, we propose a two-dimensional leadership landscape that provides a perspective into past leadership resources and identifies new frontiers of leadership. In the landscape, one dimension is where leadership occurs - ranging from a single individual to the entire collective - and the other is how leadership arises - ranging from predictable - being based on the structure of the system, to unpredictable - being opportunistic and/or emergent. We call this the Where-How of Leadership Emergence (WHOLE) Landscape. While continuous metrics for placement of a leadership resource on the WHOLE landscape are suggested, for simplicity this landscape is divided into four quadrants; two of the quadrants are identified with traditional centralized leadership resources: 1) power-based, hierarchical and/or predictable leadership resources and 2) the opportunistic, unpredictable, and/or emergent hero or leader. This paper argues that the other two quadrants, those identified with distributed leadership, are the frontiers of leadership. The structured and distributed quadrant encompasses both familiar collective leadership systems (e.g., direct democracies) and developing systems based on information technology (e.g., prediction markets). The emergent and distributed quadrant, referred to as emergent collective leadership (ECL), is identified as the newest frontier of leadership resources, particularly for discovery of innovation in the most challenging dynamic and complex environments. As this paper introduces ECL, we address a variety of issues with ECL: its validity as a leadership resource, organizational conditions for its occurrence, individual and collective requirements for a functioning ECL process, and the embodiment of ECL solutions in organizational structures.
"Attached at the umbilicus": barriers to educational success for Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nursing studentsProfessional NursingEvans BC2008Journal Article18662656
Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students receiving services from a 3-year Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant called ALCANCE responded every semester to a semistructured interview protocol about their program experiences. Eighteen Anglo student volunteers also participated in one such interview. Comparison of the transcribed interview sets using methods outlined by (Miles, M. Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.) revealed differences in perceptions of (1) potential occupations other than nursing, (2) barriers to educational success, (3) welcome and peer relationships, (4) service to family and community after graduation, and (5) fear of academic failure. ALCANCE students were less likely than the Anglo students to (1) come from well-educated families, (2) view their future in terms of a profession, (3) rely on friends in preference to their family, and (4) complain about curricular issues. They were more likely to recognize issues of power and privilege, and they also worried more about academic failure and their family and community obligations than Anglo students did. A “caring curriculum” could be used as a framework for establishing communities with an ever-developing understanding of culture among faculty and students. Faculty development in cultural issues is the foundation for such a caring curriculum because if faculty do not understand such differences, the curriculum cannot change.
A leadership retreat on the role of professional associations and scientific societies. A summary reportA leadership retreat on the role of professional associations and scientific societies. A summary reportNA 2008Conference Proceedings
The United States is the world’s leader in science. Maintaining this status is considered to be a national priority. Doing so, however, requires the United States to respond to critical challenges. These challenges include shortages of funding for the federal science agencies, increasing global competition, and a shrinking “pipeline” of talented people interested in science, technology, and clinical careers. Embedded in these challenges is one that has remained unsolved for decades: the need to tap and develop all of the diverse talents that make up this country’s human capital. In addition to asking whether we are preparing sufficient numbers of scientists with the skills necessary to meet the workforce needs of the 21st century, we need to ensure that future generations of scientists fully engage the nation’s spectrum of racial and ethnic diversity so all might contribute to and benefit from our scientific achievements. To keep pace in a global economy, the nation must develop and promote the talents of its entire population; it cannot afford to squander the capacity of traditionally underrepresented ethnic or racial minorities.
Addressing medical school diversity through an undergraduate partnership at Texas A&M Health Science Center: a blueprint for successAcad MedParrish AR2008Journal Article18448910
Imperative to increasing diversity in the physician workforce is increasing the pool of qualified underrepresented minority applicants to medical schools. With this goal in mind, the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (A&M College of Medicine) has partnered with Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), a historically black college and university that is a component of the Texas A&M university system, to develop the undergraduate medical academy (UMA). The UMA was established by legislative mandate in 2003 and is a state-funded program. The authors describe the development of partnership between the A&M College of Medicine and PVAMU, focusing on the key attributes that have been identified for success. The administrative structure of the UMA ensures that the presidents of the two institutions collaborate to address issues of program oversight and facilitates a direct relationship between the dean and associate dean for academic affairs of A&M College of Medicine and the director of the UMA to define the program objectives and structure. The authors delineate the admission process to the UMA, as well as the academic requirements of the program. Students attend lecture series during the academic year and participate in summer programs on the A&M College of Medicine campus in addition to receiving intensive academic counseling and opportunities for tutoring in several subjects. The authors also describe the initial success in medical school admissions for UMA students. This partnership provides a model blueprint that can be adopted and adapted by other medical schools focused on increasing diversity in medicine.
An educational partnership program with minority serving institutions: A framework for producing minority scientists in NOAA-related disciplinesJournal of Geoscience EducationRobinson Larry 2008Journal Article
An effective partnership with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) has been established with the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Building on a commitment to increase research collaboration with MSIs, a collaborative program developed by NOAA and its MSI partners has led to a significant increase in the education and graduation of students from underrepresented communities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) that support NOAA's mission. NOAA's Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) was established in 2001 with a primary goal to increase individuals trained in STEM fields from which NOAA may select its future workforce. The program uses the National Science Foundation (NSF) data and internally developed performance metrics to illustrate a measurable impact on national statistics. To date, over 900 undergraduate and graduate students have benefited directly from educational and research experiences through the EPP and over 340 secondary (middle school and high school) students have participated in EPP activities designed to encourage students to pursue degrees in STEM fields. The EPP framework demonstrates that an effective partnership, with best practices, and concrete examples of success is available as a template for institutions and agencies working to replicate these successes.
Attrition in residents entering US obstetrics and gynecology residencies: analysis of National GME Census dataAm J Obstet GynecolAndriole DA2008Journal Article18722571
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify risk factors for attrition among obstetrics and gynecology residents. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 2001-2006 American Medical Association Graduate Medical Education (GME) Census data for all residents who entered obstetrics and gynecology in 2001 to characterize residents who did not complete a 4-year training period in their initial programs ("attrition"). Multivariable logistic regression models identified predictors of attrition from among age, gender, race, Hispanic ethnicity, medical school type, and medical school graduation year. RESULTS: Of 1055 residents entering obstetrics and gynecology in 2001, 228 (21.6%) were in the "attrition" group (133 changed obstetrics and gynecology programs and/or completed training on atypical cycles; 75 changed specialty; 20 discontinued GME). Residents who were older, underrepresented minority race, Asian race, osteopathic- or international medical school graduates were more likely to be in the "attrition" group (each P < .05). CONCLUSION: Analysis of a national cohort of obstetrics and gynecology residents identified substantial attrition and demographic risk factors.
Breaking the Cycle of Racism in the Classroom: Critical Race Reflections from Future Teachers of ColorTeacher Education QuarterlyKohli R2008Journal Article
To highlight the impact that cultural bias in schools can have on Students of Color not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed. See also: Color ..... Click the link for more information., this article articulates themes that emerge from the personal narratives of nine Women of Color (2) enrolled in an undergraduate education undergraduate education Medtalk In the US, a 4+ yr college or university education leading to a baccalaureate degree, the minimum education level required for medical school admission; undergraduate medical education refers to the 4 yrs of medical school. Cf CME. ..... Click the link for more information. program in Southern California. Through qualitative interviews, these future Teachers of Color reveal discriminatory experiences in their own education; as well as convey advice on how to prevent and break cycles of racism in classrooms of today's youth. The voices of Teachers of Color are often invisible from education discourse; however, this study adds a much needed perspective to teacher education, and can provide a model of pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic also ped·a·gog·i·cal adj. 1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy. 2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner. reflection that, I believe, should be replicated in programs serving prospective Teachers of Colo
Chapter 2: Higher Education in Science and EngineeringScience and Engineering Indicators 2008National Science Foundation 2008Government Publication
A number of key influences shape the nature of U.S. S&E higher education and its standing in the world. In recent years, demographic trends and world events contributed to changes in both the numbers and types of students participating in U.S. higher education. After declining in the 1990s, the U.S. college-age population is currently increasing and is projected to increase for the next decade. The composition of the college-age population is also changing, with Asians and Hispanics becoming an increasing share of the population. Recent enrollment and degree trends, to some extent, reflect these changes. For example, graduate S&E enrollment and the number of S&E degrees at all levels are up, and the proportion of S&E degrees earned by minorities is increasing.
Collective Intelligence: Creating a Prosperous World at Peace, Science of Collective Intelligence: Resources for ChangeCollective Intelligence: Creating a Prosperous World at PeaceJohnson NL2008Single Chapter of Compiled Work
This contribution focuses on the science side of CI [collective intelligence] – necessary for the understanding and development of CI resources. The emphasis is on topics that have not been examined in other contributions, reflected in the following questions – each a section heading. 1) What is unique about the Internet that will enable CI to unite all peoples, worldwide? 2) Why is diversity essential for CI? 3) Must we all have the same vision and goals for CI to work? 4) How can the collective solve a problem when the individual can’t even understand the solution? 5) Is CI a competitive, cooperative or synergistic process? 6) And finally how does CI fit into traditional models of leadership? A science perspective provides much-needed tools for understanding the workings of CI and establishing a foundation for the next generation of CI resources.
Diversity in Academic Medicine No. 1: Case for Minority Faculty Development TodayMount Sinai Journal of MedicineTaylor V2008Journal Article19021210
The underrepresentation of underrepresented minorities in the healthcare professions has a profoundly negative effect on public health, including serious racial and ethnic health disparities. These can be reduced only by increased recruitment and development of both underrepresented minority medical students and underrepresented minority medical school administrators and faculty. Underrepresented minority faculty development is deterred by barriers resulting from years of systematic segregation, discrimination, tradition, culture, and elitism in academic medicine. If these barriers can be overcome, the rewards will be great: improvements in public health, an expansion of the contemporary medical research agenda, and improvements in the teaching of both underrepresented minority and non-underrepresented minority students.
Is Diversity Good? Six Possible Conceptions of Diversity and Six Possible Answers. Science and Engineering EthicsBouville M2008Journal Article18038195
Prominent ethical and policy issues such as affirmative action and female enrollment in science and engineering revolve around the idea that diversity is good. However, a precise definition is seldom provided. I show that diversity may be construed as a factual description, a craving for symmetry, an intrinsic good, an instrumental good, a symptom, or a side effect. These acceptions differ vastly in their nature and properties. Some are deeply mistaken and some others cannot lead to concrete policies. It is thus necessary to clarify what one means by 'diversity.' It may be a neutral description of a given state; but this is insufficient to act. The idea that there should be the same representation in a specific context as in the overall population is both puzzling and arbitrary. Diversity as intrinsic good is a mere opinion, which cannot be concretely applied; moreover, the most commonly invoked forms of diversity (sexual and racial) are not intrinsically good. On the other hand, diversity as instrumental good can be evaluated empirically and can give rise to policies, but these may be very weak. Finally, symptoms and side effects are not actually about diversity. I consider the example of female enrollment in science and engineering, interpreting the various arguments found in the literature in light of this polysemy.
Metrics to assess broadening participation in STEMASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsCady Elizabeth2008Conference Proceedings
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has long advocated increased diversity among its grantees, in particular through the Broader Impacts Criterion for grant proposals that looks at the impact of NSF support for research on education and on NSF support for both research and education on such things as a) advancing public understanding of science and engineering b) advancing learning, c) increasing the participation in the science and engineering enterprise of underrepresented populations, and d) enhancing the infrastructure for research and education [1] Despite this philosophy, few metrics by which to gauge grantees' progress in broadening participation exist. Included within the suite of possible responses to the Broader Impacts Criterion of the NSF Merit Review Criteria are those activities that advance the goal of increasing the participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) by those individuals who are traditionally underrepresented in NSF fields (e.g., women, minorities, and persons with disabilities) and/or institutions that are underrepresented as recipients of NSF grants (e.g., community colleges, minority serving institutions, baccalaureate colleges, and other non-research institutions). Although NSF provides examples of such activities, there is currently no method by which to gauge grantee attention to the Broader Impacts Criterion or the success of such efforts when they are asserted. To provide suggestions of possible metrics, The Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE) at the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), with NSF support, convened a workshop consisting of individuals broadly representative of NSF's grantee communities. The group suggested that, at a minimum, grantee institutions should provide both their existing affirmative action plans as well as specific information on collaborations with underrepresented institutions. In addition, the working group provided a list of other metrics that PIs could voluntarily offer as support for claims of broadening participation of both individuals from underrepresented populations and individuals from institutions that have not traditionally participated in funded research. The deliberations and recommendations of the workshop attendees will be presented. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to better defined NSF policies regarding the Broadening Participation criterion.
Minority Faculty Voices on Diversity in Academic Medicine: Perspectives From One SchoolAcademic MedicineMahoney Megan2008Journal Article18667896
In 2005, underrepresented minority faculty in the School of Medicine at University of California–San Francisco were individually interviewed to explore three topics: participants’ experiences as minorities, perspectives on diversity and discrimination in academic medicine, and recommendations for improvement. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently coded using principles of qualitative, text-based analysis in a four-stage review process. Thirty-six minority faculty (15 assistant professors, 11 associate professors, and 10 full professors) participated, representing diversity across specialties, faculty rank, gender, and race/ethnicity. Seventeen were African American, 16 were Latino, and 3 were Asian. Twenty participants were women. Investigators identified four major themes: (1) choosing to participate in diversityrelated activities, driven by personal commitment and institutional pressure, (2) the gap between intention and implementation of institutional efforts to increase diversity, (3) detecting and reacting to discrimination, and (4) a need for a multifaceted approach to mentorship, given few available minority mentors.Minority faculty are an excellent resource for identifying strategies to improve diversity in academic medicine. Participants emphasized the strong association between effective mentorship and career satisfaction, and many delineated unique mentoring needs of minority faculty that persist throughout academic ranks. Findings have direct application to future institutional policies in recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority faculty.
Multicultural experience enhances creativity: the when and howAmerican PsychologistLeung A2008Journal Article18377107
Many practices aimed at cultivating multicultural competence in educational and organizational settings (e.g., exchange programs, diversity education in college, diversity management at work) assume that multicultural experience fosters creativity. In line with this assumption, the research reported in this article is the first to empirically demonstrate that exposure to multiple cultures in and of itself can enhance creativity. Overall, the authors found that extensiveness of multicultural experiences was positively related to both creative performance (insight learning, remote association, and idea generation) and creativity-supporting cognitive processes (retrieval of unconventional knowledge, recruitment of ideas from unfamiliar cultures for creative idea expansion). Furthermore, their studies showed that the serendipitous creative benefits resulting from multicultural experiences may depend on the extent to which individuals open themselves to foreign cultures, and that creativity is facilitated in contexts that deemphasize the need for firm answers or existential concerns. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for promoting creativity in increasingly global learning and work environments.
Planning for diversity: Options and recommendations for DoD leaders- Prepared for DoDPlanning for diversity: Options and recommendations for DoD leaders- Prepared for DoDLim N2008[Blank]
Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense
Professional women and minorities: A total human resources data compendium, 17th editionProfessional women and minorities: A total human resources data compendium, 17th editionFrehill L.M.2008Books
Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense
Race-Neutral Versus Race-Conscious Workforce Policy To Improve Access To CareHealth AffairsSaha S2008Journal Article18180500
Access to care for racial and ethnic minority groups, low-income populations, and the un- and underinsured has been problematic despite expansion in the health workforce. Workforce policies that improve access to care are needed, as is funding to support them. Reviewing evidence related to providers’ patterns of service to the underserved, this paper concludes that underrepresented minority health professionals have consistently been more likely than those from low socioeconomic backgrounds or the National Health Service Corps to deliver health care to the underserved. These findings have implications for policies and programs that might leverage the workforce to better meet the needs of disadvantaged patients.
Race-Specific Patents, Commercialization, and Intellectual Property PolicyBuffalo Law ReviewGhosh S2008Journal Article
"...The substance of my argument can be summarized as follows. Intellectual property is often described as a system of incentives to promote progress through innovation and creativity. This basic proposition has been challenged and extended in many ways. Some argue that intellectual property is better understood as a means of distributing and disseminating creative works rather than creating them. Others argue that intellectual property serves a cultural or semiotic function to affirm cultural and social values in the marketplace. Even others argue that intellectual property serves to distribute resources and share the surplus in markets among creators, users, and intermediaries. One element common to these normative positions is the instrumental role of intellectual property. Intellectual property law serves to meet certain social goals, rather than affirm and validate natural rights. The challenge to the intellectual property system is the definition of those goals. Understanding intellectual property in instrumental terms helps in the analysis of the use of racial categories. When racial categories appear in patent documents, they are markers for the social context that gives rise to inventions. Validating racial categories in patents may validate racist or racialist social practices. They may also represent the realities of a diverse, culturally rich, and racially defined marketplace. The challenge is to construct a theory of racial categories that helps to justify the instrumental uses of intellectual property. These issues have been explored in the areas of trademark and copyright. The issue of racially insensitive mascots and brands raises questions about the goals of trademark law. The issue of derivative works based on appropriation of preexisting cultural forms raises questions about the goals of copyright law. This Article explores issues of culture and race in the field of patent law to add to the rich literature on culture in the law of copyright and trademark..."
Racial/ethnic disparities in the acceptance of Medicaid patients in dental practicesJOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRYOkunseri C2008Journal Article18248337
OBJECTIVES: Medicaid enrollees disproportionately experience dental disease and difficulties accessing needed dental care. However, little has been documented on the factors associated with the acceptance of new Medicaid patients by dentists, and particularly whether minority dentists are more likely to accept new Medicaid patients. We therefore examined the factors associated with the acceptance of new Medicaid patients by dentists. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic minority dentists are twice as likely as White dentists to accept new Medicaid patients. Dentists in larger practices also are significantly more likely than those in smaller practices to accept new Medicaid patients. These findings suggest that increasing dental workforce diversity to match the diversity of the general US population can potentially improve access to dental care for poor and minority Americans, and may serve as an important force in reducing disparities in dental care.
Recent Admissions Trends at UNLV-SDM: Perspectives on Recruitment of Female and Minority Students at a New Dental SchoolJournal of Dental EducationSewell J2008Journal Article18981204
The purpose of this study was to assess the current and historical trends in diversity among dental school applicants and enrollees at a new dental institution, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine (UNLV-SDM). Applicant and enrollment data for the first four cohorts, sorted by gender and ethnicity, were retrieved and summarized by the Office of Admissions and Student Affairs at UNLV-SDM. The principal findings of this analysis revealed enrollment of females at UNLV-SDM was relatively consistent during this time interval, although significantly lower than the U.S. average of all dental schools. The enrollment of minorities at UNLV-SDM, however, was consistent and comparable to the U.S. average, although these percentages were disproportionately smaller than the percentage of minorities in the general population. Based upon these findings, a new model for outreach and recruitment of females and minorities was recently created, based in part upon evidence of successful strategies by dental educators at other institutions, in order to increase the enrollment of female and underrepresented minority students.
Report on the Hispanic Employment Challenge in the Federal GovernmentUS EEO Commission ReportFederal Hispanic Work Group 2008Government Publication
The Hispanic Work Group was directed to examine concerns about federal sector employment including, but not limited to, hiring, leadership development and retention. More importantly, the Work Group was given the responsibility of formulating recommendations designed to enhance and refocus federal Hispanic employment plans, and to remove barriers and level the playing field to encourage greater opportunities for Hispanic applicants and employees throughout the federal government. The Work Group was tasked with issuing a report containing both assessments of the problems, as well as issues and recommendations on how to resolve them. The enclosed report constitutes the Work Group’s recommendations to the EEOC Chair. The Work Group divided itself into a series of sub-groups to focus on specific aspects of this problem. The sub-groups included: (a) recruitment and hiring; (b) retention; (c) leadership development; (d) Hispanic Employment Program Managers; (e) accountability; and (f) science, technology, engineering and mathematics. These sub-groups examined data and various facets of the issues, interviewed stakeholders and experts, and developed recommendations to the EEOC Chair. The Work Group also considered a host of creative ideas and concepts that fell beyond the purview of either the Commission or federal agencies to implement. Included among these are the following: require an agency’s annual budget appropriation to be contingent upon satisfactory EEO performance; pass the Senior Executive Service Diversity Assurance Act; and expand federal employment opportunities to those who are not citizens. These concepts, though noteworthy, could not be included in this report inasmuch as they would require action by the Legislative branch of government. Examples of the groups’ recommendations are listed below. * Develop a Hispanic Media Outreach Strategy and branding tool to assist agencies in marketing various types of federal employment; * Establish a consortium of federal agencies whose mission-critical occupations include science, technology, engineering and mathematics to coordinate recruitment efforts; * Better utilize intern programs; * Create a government-wide mentoring program; * Create full-time Hispanic Employment Program Manager positions to address Hispanic employment initiatives and programs; and * Include EEO/diversity requirements in all hiring officials’ critical performance elements. In sum, the enclosed report is designed not only to discuss the problem, but to offer practical, comprehensive solutions that can be adopted by agencies in their effort to enhance employment opportunities for Hispanics.
Social identity contingencies: How diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions. Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyPurdie-Vaughns V2008Journal Article18361675
This research demonstrates that people at risk of devaluation based on group membership are attuned to cues that signal social identity contingencies— judgments, stereotypes, opportunities, restrictions, and treatments that are tied to one’s social identity in a given setting. In 3 experiments, African American professionals were attuned to minority representation and diversity philosophy cues when they were presented as a part of workplace settings. Low minority representation cues coupled with colorblindness (as opposed to valuing diversity) led African American professionals to perceive threatening identity contingencies and to distrust the setting (Experiment 1). The authors then verified that the mechanism mediating the effect of setting cues on trust was identity contingent evaluations (Experiments 2 & 3). The power of social identity contingencies as they relate to underrepresented groups in mainstream institutions is discussed.
Student body racial and ethnic composition and diversity-related outcomes in US medical schools10JAMASaha S2008Journal Article18780842
Context: Many medical schools assert that a racially and ethnically diverse student body is an important element in educating physicians to meet the needs of a diverse society. However, there is limited evidence addressing the educational effects of student body racial diversity. Objective: To determine whether student body racial and ethnic diversity is associated with diversity-related outcomes among US medical students. Design, Setting, and Participants: A Web-based survey (Graduation Questionnaire) administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges of 20 112 graduating medical students (64% of all graduating students in 2003 and 2004) from 118 allopathic medical schools in the United States. Historically black and Puerto Rican medical schools were excluded. Main Outcome Measures: Students' self-rated preparedness to care for patients from other racial and ethnic backgrounds, attitudes about equity and access to care, and intent to practice in an underserved area. Results: White students within the highest quintile for student body racial and ethnic diversity, measured by the proportion of underrepresented minority (URM) students, were more likely to rate themselves as highly prepared to care for minority populations than those in the lowest diversity quintile (61.1% vs 53.9%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.57). This association was strongest in schools in which students perceived a positive climate for interracial interaction. White students in the highest URM quintile were also more likely to have strong attitudes endorsing equitable access to care (54.8% vs 44.2%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.74). For nonwhite students, after adjustment there were no significant associations between student body URM proportions and diversity-related outcomes. Student body URM proportions were not associated with white or nonwhite students' plans to practice in underserved communities, although URM students were substantially more likely than white or nonwhite/non-URM students to plan to serve the underserved (48.7% vs 18.8% vs 16.2%, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion: Student body racial and ethnic diversity within US medical schools is associated with outcomes consistent with the goal of preparing students to meet the needs of a diverse population.
The importance and benefits of diverse faculty in academic medicine: Implications for recruitment, retention, and promotionThe Diversity Research ForumNA 2008Conference Proceedings
Increasingly, research scholars and institutional leaders in medical education are seeking to identify the barriers and positive enablers encountered by racial and ethnic minority faculty around recruitment, retention, and promotion. Evidence of this is reflected in previous AAMC Diversity Research Forums.1-3 As this year’s proceedings illustrate, recent research in these areas is expanding to encompass developing strategies that sustain and provide effective professional development for racial and ethnic minority faculty in the field.
The importance of educational and social backgrounds of diverse students to nursing program successNursing EducationEvans BC2008Journal Article18630716
This article compares the educational and social backgrounds of Anglo students with those of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students receiving stipends and other services from a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant to determine the possible effects of such backgrounds on success in a baccalaureate nursing program. Stipend recipients provided baseline background data by interview on admission, and the results were compared with corresponding data from a volunteer sample of Anglo students to enhance understanding of the educational and social circumstances of the stipend recipients and to identify a need for individualized, tailored grant approaches. The Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students demonstrated less adequate educational backgrounds and lower social class as gauged by parental occupation, than did the Anglo students. Although overall comprehensive grant strategies maximized the potential for success of stipend recipients, strategies need to be tailored to fit each individual's unique educational and social background.
The leaky pipeline: factors associated with early decline in interest in premedical studies among underrepresented minority undergraduate studentsAcad MedBarr DA2008Journal Article18448909
PURPOSE: To determine the causes among underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups (URM) of a decline in interest during the undergraduate years in pursuing a career in medicine. METHOD: From fall 2002 through 2007, the authors conducted a longitudinal study of 362 incoming Stanford freshmen (23% URM) who indicated on a freshman survey that they hoped to become physicians. Using a 10-point scale of interest, the authors measured the change in students' levels of interest in continuing premedical studies between the beginning of freshman year and the end of sophomore year. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 68 participants, approximately half of whom had experienced decreases in interest in continuing as premeds, and half of whom who had experienced increases in interest. RESULTS: URM students showed a larger decline in interest than did non-URM students; women showed a larger decline than did men, independent of race or ethnicity. The authors found no association between scholastic ability as measured by SAT scores and changes in level of interest. The principal reason given by students for their loss of interest in continuing as premeds was a negative experience in one or more chemistry courses. Students also identified problems in the university's undergraduate advising system as a contributor. CONCLUSIONS: Largely because of negative experiences with chemistry classes, URM students and women show a disproportionate decline in interest in continuing in premedical studies, with the result that fewer apply to medical school.
The Workings of a Multicultural Research TeamJOURNAL OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSINGFriedemann M2008Journal Article18390824
Purpose: Transcultural nurse researchers are exposed to the challenges of developing and maintaining a multiethnic team. With the example of a multicultural research study of family caregivers conducted in the Miami-Dade area, the authors guide the readers through steps of developing a culturally competent and effective team. Design: Pointing out challenges and successes, the authors illustrate team processes and successful strategies relative to recruitment of qualified members, training and team maintenance, and evaluation of team effectiveness. Method: With relevant concepts from the literature applied to practical examples, the authors demonstrate how cultural team competence grows in a supportive work environment.
Toward Achieving the "Beloved Community" in the Workplace: Lessons for Applied Business Research and Practice From the Teachings of Martin Luther King Jr.Business & SocietyJones J2008Journal Article
In this study, the authors analyze data from a Gallup Organization public opinion poll commemorating the 40th anniversary of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to illustrate how businesses might incorporate Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s social justice themes of belongingness and connectedness in ways beneficial to desirable organizational outcomes (e.g., employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, employee retention). Results from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of more than 1,200 Americans indicate that, among other outcomes, racial and ethnic minority employees who feel a sense of engagement (i.e., belongingness and connectedness) with their workplaces, and who believe in their organization's commitment to diversity, feel a heightened affective connection at work. Furthermore, negative psychosocial outcomes because of perceived discrimination-based inequity in the workplace were mediated by engagement and trust in organization diversity policies. The authors discuss implications of these findings for future management research and practice.
Unlocking the benefits of diversity: All-inclusive multiculturalism and positive organizational changeThe Journal of Applied Behavioral ScienceStevens FG2008Journal Article
As the demographic composition of organizations in the United States rapidly shifts, such that minority groups are becoming the numerical and economic majority, organizations are grappling with ways to manage diversity in the workplace. The two forms of diversity initiatives most frequently implemented in organizations—colorblindness and multiculturalism—have clear benefits; however, each also contributes to feelings of exclusion by different organizational members. In this article, the authors describe problematic issues raised by these two approaches to diversity and offer an alternative perspective—all-inclusive multiculturalism, or the AIM model. The authors posit that AIM serves as a catalyst for positive and effective organizational change through the development of social capital and positive relationships at work and enables organizational members to grow to their fullest potential.
Workplace Diversity and Public Policy Challenges and Opportunities for PsychologyAmerican PsychologistFassinger Ruth2008Journal Article18473610
This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, “diverse” populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists.
A new hybrid laboratory course christens a pipeline of biology students from Alabama State University to the University of South FloridaASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference ProceedingsStroot Peter2007Conference Proceedings
The University of South Florida (USF) has partnered with Alabama State University (ASU), an HBCU institution, to initiate a new pipeline between the schools that has the potential to increase the number of ASU biology graduates enrolling in engineering graduate programs. This new pipeline will be christened by a new hybrid laboratory course in the spring of 2006 that exposes ASU students to the use of molecular biology based methods in engineering. This USF course was developed through an NSF-CCLI grant and offered to USF students in the spring of 20051-3. For the planned hybrid course, the lecture portion of the course will be broadcast live through the internet for ASU students. The lecture will be the responsibility of the USF faculty member, while the laboratory section will be provided locally to ASU students by an ASU faculty member. To prepare for this hybrid course, the USF hosted the ASU faculty member for a "crash course" on the laboratory techniques. With this model course in place, the USF College of Engineering faculty and ASU faculty partners will expand this pipeline by offering additional hybrid courses that share the biotechnology theme. With this pipeline in place, the USF and ASU faculty expect to expand this collaboration into a national model involving students from both institutions, and eventually additional students from other minority-serving institutions and community colleges.
Awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the US Presidential Apology and Their Influence on Minority Participation in Biomedical ResearchAmerican Journal of Public HealthKatz RV2007Journal Article17901437
The University of South Florida (USF) has partnered with Alabama State University (ASU), an HBCU institution, to initiate a new pipeline between the schools that has the potential to increase the number of ASU biology graduates enrolling in engineering graduate programs. This new pipeline will be christened by a new hybrid laboratory course in the spring of 2006 that exposes ASU students to the use of molecular biology based methods in engineering. This USF course was developed through an NSF-CCLI grant and offered to USF students in the spring of 20051-3. For the planned hybrid course, the lecture portion of the course will be broadcast live through the internet for ASU students. The lecture will be the responsibility of the USF faculty member, while the laboratory section will be provided locally to ASU students by an ASU faculty member. To prepare for this hybrid course, the USF hosted the ASU faculty member for a "crash course" on the laboratory techniques. With this model course in place, the USF College of Engineering faculty and ASU faculty partners will expand this pipeline by offering additional hybrid courses that share the biotechnology theme. With this pipeline in place, the USF and ASU faculty expect to expand this collaboration into a national model involving students from both institutions, and eventually additional students from other minority-serving institutions and community colleges.
Congressional Research Service ReportCongressional Research Service ReportMatthews C2007Government Publication
A report of the National Science Foundation (NSF) reveals that blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans as a whole comprise more that 25% of the population and earn, as a whole, 16.2% of the bachelor degrees, 10.7% of the masters degrees, and 5.4% of the doctorate degrees in science and engineering. Several pieces of competitiveness legislation have been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the reported needs in science and mathematics education. H.R. 362 authorizes science scholarships for educating science and mathematics teachers. H.R. 363 provides funding for graduate fellowships and for basic research and research infrastructure in science and engineering. S. 761 is directed at increasing research investment, strengthening and expanding science and mathematics programs at all points on the educational pipeline, and developing an innovation infrastructure. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Developing a Research AgendaUnderstanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research CareersOlson S2007Single Chapter of Compiled Work
Underrepresented minorities--and all students--must navigate a series of experiences in the process of selecting career paths; a research agenda designed to understand which factors influence those decisions also will be complex. NIH director Elias A. Zerhouni mentioned several topics that he believes should be part of a research agenda: mentoring, timeframe when interventions are most effective, socioeconomic status of students, and cultural factors involved in the development of a scientist.
Diversity in Everyday Discourse: The Cultural Ambiguities and Consequences of "Happy Talk"American Sociological ReviewBell J2007Journal Article
Underrepresented minorities--and all students--must navigate a series of experiences in the process of selecting career paths; a research agenda designed to understand which factors influence those decisions also will be complex. NIH director Elias A. Zerhouni mentioned several topics that he believes should be part of a research agenda: mentoring, timeframe when interventions are most effective, socioeconomic status of students, and cultural factors involved in the development of a scientist.
Does the Market Value Racial and Ethnic Concordance in Physician–Patient Relationships?Health Services ResearchBrown TT2007Journal Article17362214
Objective. To determine if the market-determined earnings per hour of physicians is sensitive to the degree of area-level racial/ethnic concordance (ALREC) in the local physician labor market. Data Sources. 1998–1999 and 2000–2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Surveys and Household Surveys, 2000 U.S. Census, and the Area Resource File. Study Design. Population-averaged regression models with area-level fixed effects were used to estimate the determinants of log earnings per hour for physicians in a two-period panel (N=12,886). ALREC for a given racial/ethnic group is measured as the percentage of physicians who are of a given race/ethnicity less the percentage of the population who are of the corresponding race/ethnicity. Relevant control variables were included. Principal Findings. Average earnings per hour for Hispanic and Asian physicians varies with the degree of ALREC that corresponds to a physician's race/ethnicity. Both Hispanic and Asian physicians earn more per hour in areas where corresponding ALREC is negative, other things equal. ALREC varies from negative to positive for all groups. ALREC for Hispanics is negative, on average, due to the small percentage of the physician workforce that is Hispanic. This results in an average 5.6 percent earnings-per-hour premium for Hispanic physicians. However, ALREC for Asians is positive, on average, due to the large percentage of the physician workforce that is Asian. This results in an average 4.0 percent earnings-per-hour discount for Asian physicians. No similar statistically significant results were found for black physicians. Conclusions. The market-determined earnings per hour of Hispanic and Asian physicians are sensitive to the degree of ALREC in the local labor market. Larger sample sizes may be needed to find statistically significant results for black physicians.
Effective Strategies to Increase Diversity in STEM Fields: A Review of the Research LiteratureJournal of Negro EducationTsui L2007Journal Article
Objective. To determine if the market-determined earnings per hour of physicians is sensitive to the degree of area-level racial/ethnic concordance (ALREC) in the local physician labor market. Data Sources. 1998–1999 and 2000–2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Surveys and Household Surveys, 2000 U.S. Census, and the Area Resource File. Study Design. Population-averaged regression models with area-level fixed effects were used to estimate the determinants of log earnings per hour for physicians in a two-period panel (N=12,886). ALREC for a given racial/ethnic group is measured as the percentage of physicians who are of a given race/ethnicity less the percentage of the population who are of the corresponding race/ethnicity. Relevant control variables were included. Principal Findings. Average earnings per hour for Hispanic and Asian physicians varies with the degree of ALREC that corresponds to a physician's race/ethnicity. Both Hispanic and Asian physicians earn more per hour in areas where corresponding ALREC is negative, other things equal. ALREC varies from negative to positive for all groups. ALREC for Hispanics is negative, on average, due to the small percentage of the physician workforce that is Hispanic. This results in an average 5.6 percent earnings-per-hour premium for Hispanic physicians. However, ALREC for Asians is positive, on average, due to the large percentage of the physician workforce that is Asian. This results in an average 4.0 percent earnings-per-hour discount for Asian physicians. No similar statistically significant results were found for black physicians. Conclusions. The market-determined earnings per hour of Hispanic and Asian physicians are sensitive to the degree of ALREC in the local labor market. Larger sample sizes may be needed to find statistically significant results for black physicians.
Evaluation of clinical faculty: gender and minority implicationsAcad MedMcOwen KS2007Journal Article17895702
BACKGROUND: Learner ratings are an important source of data regarding teaching effectiveness. We examine ratings of faculty teaching for the effects of faculty-resident gender and underrepresented minority (URM) status concordance. METHOD: Factorial ANOVAS and t tests were used to examine gender and URM status in 10,443 teaching effectiveness evaluations for 720 faculty members, provided by 516 residents across 18 clinical departments. RESULTS: Significant interaction effects were found for gender (P < .001) and URM status (P < .05) on the individual evaluation record level. Analyses of faculty-level data showed effect sizes were small except for large positive effects for URM faculty evaluated by URM residents (ES = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, gender and minority status seem to have a negligible role in residents' evaluations of clinical faculty. However, the apparent beneficial effects for URM-URM pairs need more study.
Exploring Diversity in the Physician Workforce: Benefits, Challenges, and Future DecisionsAAMC Annual Meeting 2006: Diversity Research ForumAAMC 2007Online Conference Proceedings Publication
The growth in health care disparities coupled with projections from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) of an emerging physician shortage presents challenges to both medical educators and the health care community at large. Key strategies for expanding access to care for underserved populations and persons from minority groups include increasing the number of individuals from these populations who work in the medical field and ensuring that all physicians are skilled in the delivery of culturally competent care. Studies have documented the role of diversity in increasing access for underserved populations and improving patients’ satisfaction with care, among a host of other benefits. To examine the current state of research on diversity in the physician workforce and identify the challenges of conducting such research, the AAMC’s Division of Diversity Policy and Programs (DDPP) convened a panel of researchers and funders to present findings on the impact of diversity in medicine and to discuss the implications of public policy on the ability of these efforts to both proceed and create change. Several key themes emerged from the discussion: Diversity improves interactions with health care systems for patients from minority groups; concordance matters; studies on the effect of physician diversity are hard to randomize; evidence is one factor that can help change policy.
Framing Inequity Safely: Whites' Motivated Perceptions of Racial PrivilegePersonality and Social Psychology BulletinUnzueta MM2007Journal Article17556675
Racial inequity was theorized to threaten Whites' self-image when inequity is framed as White privilege but not when framed as anti-Black discrimination. Manipulations of Whites' need for self-regard were hypothesized to affect their perceptions of White privilege but not of anti-Black discrimination. In Experiment 1, White participants reported less privilege when given threatening (vs. affirming) feedback on an intelligence or personality test; in contrast, perceptions of anti-Black discrimination were unaffected by self-concept manipulations. In Experiment 2, threatening (vs. affirming) feedback decreased privilege perceptions only among Whites high in racial identity. Using a value-based self-affirmation manipulation, Experiment 3 replicated the effect of self-image concerns on Whites' perceptions of privilege and provided evidence that self-concerns, through their effect on perceived privilege, influence Whites' support for redistributive social policies.
Reducing Racial Bias Among Health Care Providers: Lessons from Social-Cognitive PsychologyJournal of General Internal MedicineSaha S2007Journal Article17503111
The paper sets forth a set of evidence-based recommendations for interventions to combat unintentional bias among health care providers, drawing upon theory and research in social cognitive psychology. Our primary aim is to provide a framework that outlines strategies and skills, which can be taught to medical trainees and practicing physicians, to prevent unconscious racial attitudes and stereotypes from negatively influencing the course and outcomes of clinical encounters. These strategies and skills are designed to: l) enhance internal motivation to reduce bias, while avoiding external pressure; 2) increase understanding about the psychological basis of bias; 3) enhance providers’ confidence in their ability to successfully interact with socially dissimilar patients; 4) enhance emotional regulation skills; and 5) improve the ability to build partnerships with patients. We emphasize the need for programs to provide a nonthreatening environment in which to practice new skills and the need to avoid making providers ashamed of having racial, ethnic, or cultural stereotypes. These recommendations are also intended to provide a springboard for research on interventions to reduce unintentional racial bias in health care.
Student Body Diversity: Relationship to Medical Students’ Experiences and AttitudesDiversity in Medical EducationGuiton G2007Journal Article17895700
The paper sets forth a set of evidence-based recommendations for interventions to combat unintentional bias among health care providers, drawing upon theory and research in social cognitive psychology. Our primary aim is to provide a framework that outlines strategies and skills, which can be taught to medical trainees and practicing physicians, to prevent unconscious racial attitudes and stereotypes from negatively influencing the course and outcomes of clinical encounters. These strategies and skills are designed to: l) enhance internal motivation to reduce bias, while avoiding external pressure; 2) increase understanding about the psychological basis of bias; 3) enhance providers’ confidence in their ability to successfully interact with socially dissimilar patients; 4) enhance emotional regulation skills; and 5) improve the ability to build partnerships with patients. We emphasize the need for programs to provide a nonthreatening environment in which to practice new skills and the need to avoid making providers ashamed of having racial, ethnic, or cultural stereotypes. These recommendations are also intended to provide a springboard for research on interventions to reduce unintentional racial bias in health care.
Student perceptions: the influence of a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant on retentionNursing EducationEvans BC2007Journal Article
This article reports the perceptions of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students concerning the influence of a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant (ALCANCE) on their educational experiences in a baccalaureate nursing program. The grant provided an educational pipeline for these students, supporting them financially, personally, and academically from middle school through graduation from the nursing program. Fifteen students receiving grant services during the upper-division nursing major completed a 76-item questionnaire assessing the influence of such services at the end of each of four semesters in the nursing program. Analysis of these questionnaires and examination of responses to open-ended questions at the end of each instrument indicated a generally positive influence of ALCANCE on student experiences. However, there remains a need for the creation of additional caring educational environments and further research to better understand effective strategies for addressing recruitment and retention in American Indian and Hispanic/Latino nursing students.
The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societiesThe Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societiesPage Scott2007Books
[Page] redefines the way we understand ourselves in relation to one another. The Difference is about how we think in groups...and how our collective wisdom exceeds the sum of its parts. Why can teams of people find better solutions than brilliant individuals working alone? And why are the best group decisions and predictions those that draw upon the very qualities that make each of us unique? The answers lie in diversity...not what we look like outside, but what we look like within, our distinct tools and abilities. -- Education Digest In The Difference, Page reveals how groups that display a range of perspectives outperform groups of like-minded experts. Diversity yields superior outcomes, and he proves it using his own cutting-edge research. Moving beyond the politics that often clouds standard debates about diversity, Page explains why difference beats out homogeneity. And he examines practical ways to apply diversity's logic to a host of problems. -- Here is the City Page has written a book that offers a pragmatic defense of diversity practices, where having a diverse set of points of view in a group equates to better decision making. The book . . .illustrates the benefits of a different way of thinking about problem solving, providing people with conceptual tools to understand what lies behind some of the more popular treatments of topics and to reshape the public debate about the benefits and disadvantages of diversity. -- Henry Farrell, Quality World
The Effects of Team Diversity on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of Team DemographyJournal of ManagementHorwitz S K2007Journal Article
Over the past few decades, a great deal of research has been conducted to examine the complex relationship between team diversity and team outcomes. However, the impact of team diversity on team outcomes and moderating variables potentially affecting this relationship are still not fully answered with mixed findings in the literature. These research issues were, therefore, addressed by quantitatively reviewing extant work and provided estimates of the relationship between team diversity and team outcomes. In particular, the effects of task-related and bio-demographic diversity at the group-level were meta-analyzed to test the hypothesis of synergistic performance resulting from diverse employee teams. Support was found for the positive impact of task-related diversity on team performance although bio-demographic diversity was not significantly related to team performance. Similarly, no discernible effect of team diversity was found on social integration. The implications of the review for future research and practices are also discussed.
The Impact of Racial Diversity on Intermediate and Long-Term Performance: The Moderating Role of Environmental ContextStrategic Management JournalRichard OC2007Journal Article
We conduct a firm-level, 6-year longitudinal analysis on the impact that racial diversity in human resources has on financial performance. When considering short-term performance outcomes, we predict a curvilinear relationship between diversity and performance (i.e., firm productivity). Although we find evidence of a U-shaped relationship between racial diversity and productivity, the relationship is stronger in service-oriented relative to manufacturing-oriented industries and in more stable vs. volatile environments. For longer-term profitability, we propose and find support for more of a positive linear relationship between diversity and performance (i.e., Tobin's q) than a nonlinear one. This linear effect is stronger and more positive in munificent compared to resource-scare environments. Thus, we aid in reconciling existing, often contradictory, studies by demonstrating the potential short-term vs. long-term impact of racial diversity on performance. We offer implications for future research on diversity considering the current and projected demographic landscape.
The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: 18 years of a biomedical program for low-income high school studentsAcad MedWinkleby MA2007Journal Article17264691
We conduct a firm-level, 6-year longitudinal analysis on the impact that racial diversity in human resources has on financial performance. When considering short-term performance outcomes, we predict a curvilinear relationship between diversity and performance (i.e., firm productivity). Although we find evidence of a U-shaped relationship between racial diversity and productivity, the relationship is stronger in service-oriented relative to manufacturing-oriented industries and in more stable vs. volatile environments. For longer-term profitability, we propose and find support for more of a positive linear relationship between diversity and performance (i.e., Tobin's q) than a nonlinear one. This linear effect is stronger and more positive in munificent compared to resource-scare environments. Thus, we aid in reconciling existing, often contradictory, studies by demonstrating the potential short-term vs. long-term impact of racial diversity on performance. We offer implications for future research on diversity considering the current and projected demographic landscape.
Unity Through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification Group Dynamicsvan Knippenberg D2007Journal Article
Research on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relationship between work group diversity and individuals' identification with the work group across two studies. Study 1 was a cross-sectional survey that focused on gender diversity and gender diversity beliefs. Study 2 was a laboratory experiment in which work group diversity and diversity beliefs were manipulated. Results of both studies support the prediction that work group diversity and group identification are more positively related the more individuals believe in the value of diversity
Using Sustainability Education to Enable the Increase of Diversity in Science, Engineering and Technology-Related Disciplines International Journal of Engineering EducationZimmerman JB2007Journal Article
Science, engineering and technology (SET) are critical to achieving and maintaining a high quality of life, economic growth, global competitiveness, a clean environment and effective governance for the public good—some of the key characteristics of sustainability. A nation's ability to meet these goals significantly depends on the capacity and competency of its workforce to develop innovative products, processes and services that advance prosperity while maintaining and restoring environmental systems. In order to continue towards this paradigm shift, advance sustainability in the long term and supply a skilled and knowledgeable workforce to both the private and public sectors, educating the next generation in sustainability is critical. Engaging women and underrepresented groups in SET will build additional capacity in these fields that are critical to advancing economic, environmental and societal goals. There is an increasing amount of anecdotal evidence which shows that students are remarkably enthusiastic about education for sustainability and are engaged at many levels both within and outside the classroom. There may be several unique characteristics to the ideas and visions of sustainability that may contribute to making this concept especially attractive to women and underrepresented groups.
Willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical studies: Confirmatory findings from a follow-up study using the Tuskegee Legacy Project QuestionnaireJournal of the National Medical Associationet al 2007Journal Article17913117
Objectives: The purposes of this analysis were to compare the self-reported willingness of blacks, Puerto-Rican Hispanics and whites to participate as research subjects in biomedical studies, and to determine the reliability of the Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire (TLP). Methods: The TLP Questionnaire, initially used in a four-city study in 1999-2000, was administered in a follow-up study within a random-digit-dial telephone survey to a stratified random sample of adults in three different U.S. cities: Baltimore, MD; New York City; and San Juan, PR. The questionnaire, a 60-item instrument, contains two validated scales: the Likelihood of Participation (LOP) Scale and the Guinea Pig Fear Factor (GPFF) Scale. Results: Adjusting for age, sex, education, income and city, the LOP Scale was not statistically significantly different for the racial/ethnic groups (ANCOVA, p = 87). The GPFF Scale was statistically significantly higher for blacks and Hispanics as compared to whites (adjusted ANCOVA, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings from the current three-city study, as well as from our prior four-city study, are remarkably similar and reinforce the conclusion that blacks and Hispanics self-report that, despite having a higher fear of participation, they are just as likely as whites to participate in biomedical research.
2005- 2006 Biennial Report to CongressNational Science FoundationComm. on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engine 2006Government Publication
CEOSE began the 2005-2006 biennium by refocusing its priorities, which were informed by a comprehensive review and analysis of 25 years of NSF programs, CEOSE's activities and recommendations, and national trends in participation. These priorities are: (1) assessment of impact and accountability of NSF programs; (2) institutional transformation; (3) widening creative pathways into STEM; and (4) improved communications about CEOSE and its mandate. As the present report to Congress shows, CEOSE and NSF made progress in each of these key areas during 2005 and 2006. K-12 students are showing some progress in improving their proficiency in mathematics and science. Women and underrepresented minorities are increasing their numbers significantly among students receiving a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. While there has been some increase in the number of female and minority graduate STEM students, the prevailing numbers of those receiving a Ph.D. are still low compared with White men. The number of American Indians among graduate students and those completing a graduate STEM program remains appallingly low. The presence of underrepresented groups within the STEM workforce is increasing, but their numbers are still disproportionately low compared with White men. Finally, there continues to be a paucity of data on the participation of persons with disabilities within the science and engineering pipeline and workforce. Since persons with disabilities are not required to disclose their disabilities or needs for accommodations, the collection of such data is extremely difficult.
A success story: recruiting & retaining underrepresented minority doctoral students in biomedical engineeringLiberal EducationReichert WM2006Journal Article
There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus visits, or diversity awareness activities--however well-intentioned--can achieve the effect of positive examples. In this article, the author discusses how the recruitment and retaining of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students at Duke University's BME doctoral program became a success. Through a combination of graduate school, Duke endowment, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) training grant funds contributed to the success of the graduate program. This success could not have been accomplished by an administrator or a staff person alone. It had instead to be advocated at the departmental level by a faculty member with (1) successful and productive URM students in his or her own lab, (2) a vigorous research profile, (3) the respect of the other BME faculty, and (4) control over resources for supporting URM students. Here, the author suggested that majority faculty members need to step forward and enthusiastically mentor minority students, and minority students need to be openly receptive to the mentor-ship offered by majority faculty. The more people see working examples, the more likely it becomes that URM recruitment and retention will succeed.
Addressing health care disparities and increasing workforce diversity: the next step for the dental, medical, and public health professionsAm J Public HealthMitchell DA2006Journal Article17077406
There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus visits, or diversity awareness activities--however well-intentioned--can achieve the effect of positive examples. In this article, the author discusses how the recruitment and retaining of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students at Duke University's BME doctoral program became a success. Through a combination of graduate school, Duke endowment, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) training grant funds contributed to the success of the graduate program. This success could not have been accomplished by an administrator or a staff person alone. It had instead to be advocated at the departmental level by a faculty member with (1) successful and productive URM students in his or her own lab, (2) a vigorous research profile, (3) the respect of the other BME faculty, and (4) control over resources for supporting URM students. Here, the author suggested that majority faculty members need to step forward and enthusiastically mentor minority students, and minority students need to be openly receptive to the mentor-ship offered by majority faculty. The more people see working examples, the more likely it becomes that URM recruitment and retention will succeed.
Admissions and Diversity after Michigan: The Next Generation of Legal and Policy IssuesAdmissions and Diversity after Michigan: The Next Generation of Legal and Policy IssuesColeman AL2006Single Chapter of Compiled Work
(from Foreword) In 2003, the United States Supreme Court’s Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger decisions affirmed that the educational benefits of diversity could justify limited race-conscious admissions practices and, as a consequence, generated a renewed focus on both the means and ends associated with higher education’s diversity-related goals...This publication represents the culmination of the third phase of the Collaborative’s work, which has focused on student selection in admissions. As part of the preparation of this manual, we had the privilege of leading five national seminars between August 2005 and May 2006 involving more than 350 enrollment management, admissions, financial aid, legal, and policy experts across the country. Based on what we learned through those conversations—as well as what the governing laws and court decisions tell us—we have moved beyond the broad compliance focus of the first two publications of the Collaborative and turned to the identification of likely critical second-generation policy and evidence issues that should be addressed by higher education officials responsible for helping institutions achieve their diversity-related goals...We are proud to have been part of an effort that, to date, has reached over 500 higher education institutions and organizations through national seminars, and thousands of others through the dissemination of written guidance. In every phase of its work, the Collaborative’s important work has been shaped by three overarching principles for which the Bollinger cases stand: (1) Federal law should affirm educationally sound judgments, which are supported by relevant evidence; (2) the educational benefits of diversity are “substantial” and “real” and can appropriately be “at the heart of” the mission of higher education institutions; and (3) “context matters” when assessing the legality of race- and ethnicity-conscious practices. On this third anniversary of the Bollinger decisions, we should reflect upon these principles, which should shape institution-specific analyses regarding the use of race and ethnicity in the admissions selection process.
Development and evaluation of a cultural competency training curriculumBMC Med EducThom DH2006Journal Article16872504
Background: Increasing the cultural competence of physicians and other health care providers has been suggested as one mechanism for reducing health disparities by improving the quality of care across racial/ethnic groups. While cultural competency training for physicians is increasingly promoted, relatively few studies evaluating the impact of training have been published. Methods: We recruited 53 primary care physicians at 4 diverse practice sites and enrolled 429 of their patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. Patients completed a baseline survey which included a measure of physician culturally competent behaviors. Cultural competency training was then provided to physicians at 2 of the sites. At all 4 sites, physicians received feedback in the form of their aggregated cultural competency scores compared to the aggregated scores from other physicians in the practice. The primary outcome at 6 months was change in the Patient-Reported Physician Cultural Competence (PRPCC) score; secondary outcomes were changes in patient trust, satisfaction, weight, systolic blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Multiple analysis of variance was used to control for differences patient characteristics and baseline levels of the outcome measure between groups. Results: Patients had a mean of 2.8 + 2.2 visits to the study physician during the study period. Changes in all outcomes were similar in the "Training + Feedback" group compared to the "Feedback Only" group (PRPCC: 3.7 vs.1.8; trust: -0.7 vs. -0.2 ; satisfaction: 1.9 vs. 2.5; weight: -2.5 lbs vs. -0.7 lbs; systolic blood pressure: 1.7 mm Hg vs. 0.1 mm Hg; glycosylated hemoglobin 0.02% vs. 0.07%; p = NS for all). Conclusion: The lack of measurable impact of physician training on patient-reported and disease-specific outcomes in the current has several possible explanations, including the relatively limited nature of the intervention. We hope that the current study will help provide a basis for future studies, using more intensive interventions with different provider groups.
Diversity in Science: Lots of Rhetoric, Many Plans, Not Much ProgressAmerican Society for Cell Biology NewsletterBeckerle M2006Online Magazine Article
Background: Increasing the cultural competence of physicians and other health care providers has been suggested as one mechanism for reducing health disparities by improving the quality of care across racial/ethnic groups. While cultural competency training for physicians is increasingly promoted, relatively few studies evaluating the impact of training have been published. Methods: We recruited 53 primary care physicians at 4 diverse practice sites and enrolled 429 of their patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. Patients completed a baseline survey which included a measure of physician culturally competent behaviors. Cultural competency training was then provided to physicians at 2 of the sites. At all 4 sites, physicians received feedback in the form of their aggregated cultural competency scores compared to the aggregated scores from other physicians in the practice. The primary outcome at 6 months was change in the Patient-Reported Physician Cultural Competence (PRPCC) score; secondary outcomes were changes in patient trust, satisfaction, weight, systolic blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Multiple analysis of variance was used to control for differences patient characteristics and baseline levels of the outcome measure between groups. Results: Patients had a mean of 2.8 + 2.2 visits to the study physician during the study period. Changes in all outcomes were similar in the "Training + Feedback" group compared to the "Feedback Only" group (PRPCC: 3.7 vs.1.8; trust: -0.7 vs. -0.2 ; satisfaction: 1.9 vs. 2.5; weight: -2.5 lbs vs. -0.7 lbs; systolic blood pressure: 1.7 mm Hg vs. 0.1 mm Hg; glycosylated hemoglobin 0.02% vs. 0.07%; p = NS for all). Conclusion: The lack of measurable impact of physician training on patient-reported and disease-specific outcomes in the current has several possible explanations, including the relatively limited nature of the intervention. We hope that the current study will help provide a basis for future studies, using more intensive interventions with different provider groups.
Effective Recruitment and Retention of Minority Research ParticipantsAnnual Review of Public HealthYancey AK2006Journal Article16533107
Our ability, as leaders in public health scholarship and practice, to achieve and measure progress in addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health status and health care is severely constrained by low levels of participation of racial/ethnic minority populations in health-related research. Confining our review to those minority groups federally defined as underrepresented (African Americans/blacks, Latinos/Hispanics, and Native Americans/American Indians), we identified 95 studies published between January 1999 and April 2005 describing methods of increasing minority enrollment and retention in research studies, more than three times the average annual output of scholarly work in this area during the prior 15-year period. Ten themes emerged from the 75 studies that were primarily descriptive. The remaining 20 studies, which directly analyzed the efficacy or effectiveness of recruitment/retention strategies, were examined in detail and provided useful insights related to four of the ten factors: sampling approach/identification of targeted participants, community involvement/nature and timing of contact with prospective participants, incentives and logistical issues, and cultural adaptations. We then characterized the current state of this literature, discussing implications for future research needs and directions.
Improving the retention of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicineJ Natl Med AssocDaley S2006Journal Article17019910
BACKGROUND: Although several studies have outlined the need for and benefits of diversity in academia, the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic health centers remains low, and minority faculty are primarily concentrated at the rank of assistant professor. In order to increase the diversity of the faculty of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, the UCSD National Center for Leadership in Academic Medicine, in collaboration with the UCSD Hispanic Center of Excellence, implemented a junior faculty development program designed in part to overcome the differential disadvantage of minority faculty and to increase the academic success rate of all faculty. METHODS: Junior faculty received counseling in career and research objectives; assistance with academic file preparation, introduction to the institutional culture; workshops on pedagogy and grant writing; and instrumental, proactive mentoring by senior faculty. RESULTS: After implementation of the program, the retention rate of URM junior faculty in the school of medicine increased from 58% to 80% and retention in academic medicine increased from 75% to 90%. CONCLUSION: A junior faculty development program that integrates professional skill development and focused academic career advising with instrumental mentoring is associated with an increase in the retention of URM faculty in a school of medicine.
Testimony Before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of RepresentativesTestimony Before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of RepresentativesGovernment Accountability Office 2006Government Publication
BACKGROUND: Although several studies have outlined the need for and benefits of diversity in academia, the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic health centers remains low, and minority faculty are primarily concentrated at the rank of assistant professor. In order to increase the diversity of the faculty of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, the UCSD National Center for Leadership in Academic Medicine, in collaboration with the UCSD Hispanic Center of Excellence, implemented a junior faculty development program designed in part to overcome the differential disadvantage of minority faculty and to increase the academic success rate of all faculty. METHODS: Junior faculty received counseling in career and research objectives; assistance with academic file preparation, introduction to the institutional culture; workshops on pedagogy and grant writing; and instrumental, proactive mentoring by senior faculty. RESULTS: After implementation of the program, the retention rate of URM junior faculty in the school of medicine increased from 58% to 80% and retention in academic medicine increased from 75% to 90%. CONCLUSION: A junior faculty development program that integrates professional skill development and focused academic career advising with instrumental mentoring is associated with an increase in the retention of URM faculty in a school of medicine.
The Case for Cultural Competence in Health Professions EducationAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical EducationShaya F2006Online Journal Article17332850
Health profession schools in the United States have to be able to meet the health and pharmaceutical care demands of a rapidly growing racial and multiethnic population. One tactic is to develop and implement or expand existing resources and didactic courses to address cultural competence in the curricula of every college and school of pharmacy. The curriculum should require a focus on the reality of evidence-based health disparities among racial and ethnic minority populations; importance of providing culturally competent care and communication to meet the health needs of diverse patient populations; and exposure to cultural diversity. Students should be grounded in cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity. This article establishes a case for integrating cultural competence into the curricula of health professions schools.
The small group in problem-based learning: more than a cognitive ‘learning’ experience for first-year medical students in a diverse populationMedical TeacherMcLean Michelle2006Online Journal Article16807164
In problem-based learning (PBL) curricula, first-year students need to adapt to a new learning environment and an unfamiliar new pedagogy. The small-group tutorial potentially offers a learning environment where students can become self-directed learners, collaborating with other group members to achieve individual and group learning goals. At the end of the first six-week theme in a relatively new PBL curriculum, new medical students were canvassed about coping with PBL (self-directed learning; content; time management; resources) and the value of the small-group tutorial, the latter of which is currently being reported. Almost 84% of students (n¼178) responded. The benefits of participating in small groups were categorized into three domains—cognitive, affective and social—as identified from student responses. Results were analysed in terms of gender and prior educational experience (secondary school vs. prior tertiary educational experience). For almost 94% of students, the smallgroup tutorial provided a conducive learning environment that influenced their personal development (i.e. tolerance, patience) and socialization into the faculty. Significantly more males indicated that they had developed social skills, while more school-leavers (matriculants) than mature students felt more receptive to the views of others. More mature students claimed to have made friends. Irrespective of some conflicting opinions in the literature, the present results suggest that the PBL tutorial may be important in facilitating student socialization into a new and unfamiliar academic environment, particularly when the pedagogy differs markedly from their past educational experiences. Through interacting with fellow students from diverse origins who hold different views in the intimate setting of the small group, students felt that they had not only increased their knowledge but had also developed personally and socially. It is proposed that the small group may be useful for integrating a diverse population of students into a new academic environment.
The Tuskegee Legacy Project: Willingness of Minorities to Participate in Biomedical ResearchJournal of Health Care for the Poor and Undeservedet al 2006Journal Article17242525
The broad goal of the Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) study was to address, and understand, a range of issues related to the recruitment and retention of Blacks and other minorities in biomedical research studies. The specific aim of this analysis was to compare the self-reported willingness of Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites to participate as research subjects in biomedical studies, as measured by the Likelihood of Participation (LOP) Scale and the Guinea Pig Fear Factor (GPFF) Scale. The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire, a 60 item instrument, was administered to 1,133 adult Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in 4 U.S. cities. The findings revealed no difference in self-reported willingness to participate in biomedical research, as measured by the LOP Scale, between Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites, despite Blacks being 1.8 times as likely as Whites to have a higher fear of participation in biomedical research on the GPFF Scale.
Women in Science: Racial and Ethnic Differences and the Differences They MakeJournal of Technology TransferLeggon CB2006Journal Article
Often the term “women” is assumed to include women of color in the same way as the terms “African American” and “Hispanic” are assumed to include both women and men. Although women of color and non-Hispanic white women are under represented in the science labor force, the rates of and factors contributing to this under representation differ by race and ethnicity. Consequently, disaggregating data on women in science by race and ethnicity is crucial to capture these differences. Such distinctions are critical to developing effective policy, practice, and programs to increase the participation of women in science.
Affirmative Action at School and on the JobAnnual Review of SociologyHarper Shannon2005Journal Article
Affirmative action (AA) addresses individuals’ exclusion from opportunities based on group membership by taking into account race, sex, ethnicity, and other characteristics. This chapter reviews sociological, economic, historical, and legal scholarship on AA. We first consider the emergence of group-based remedies, how protected groups are defined, and proportional representation as a standard for inclusion.We then summarize the research on AA in education (including busing) and in employment. The concluding section reviews societal responses to AA, including attitudes, challenges, and political responses. As public and judicial support for AA has waned, employers and educators have increasingly turned toward diversity as a rationale for including underrepresented groups. Despite this change, many employers and educators continue to take positive steps to include minorities and women.
Barriers to Racial/Ethnic Minority Application and Competition for NIH Research FundingJournal of the National Medical Associationet al 2005Journal Article16173321
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator level.
Diversity in Higher Education: The Consideration of Race in Hiring University FacultyB.Y.U. Education and Law JournalEcke S2005Online Journal Article
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator level.
GAO ReportGAO ReportGovernment Accountability Office 2005Government Publication
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator level.
National Science Foundation, Division of Research, Evaluation and CommunicationsNational Science Foundation, Division of Research, Evaluation and CommunicationsRodriguez C2005Government Publication
In 2004, NSF contracted with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a short-term study to assess program impact and collect evidence of project success in infrastructure enhancement (i.e., courses, equipment, faculty), and student recruitment, retention, graduation and advancement in STEM careers. In addition, the study was to describe the project model(s) and determine whether or not the model(s) could guide national efforts for achieving and sustaining diversity in the STEM workforce. AIR undertook a three-part study that involved secondary analysis of MIE and national data, case studies of the MIE projects to identify the project model(s) and benchmarking the core components of the model(s) against national standards... ...There appears to be one MIE model with seven essential components: recruitment and transition initiatives, student support, undergraduate research, faculty development, curriculum development, physical infrastructure development, and STEM graduate school and employment initiatives. Although each project looked somewhat different, student support (including social, financial, and academic assistance) received significant emphasis across all projects. Infrastructure enhancements included improvement or development of classrooms, laboratories, and specific areas in which students could study and work; purchases of state-of-the-art computing and laboratory equipment; hiring of over 100 new STEM faculty; curriculum enhancements at every project; and new STEM degree programs established at many. Undergraduate research opportunities were available both on- and off-campus, anchoring the students’ motivation and persistence in STEM. The study suggests that the MIE model is readily transportable, but that it must be aligned to the context and culture of the institution.
Researching the educational benefits of diversity; College Board Research Report No. 2005-4Researching the educational benefits of diversity; College Board Research Report No. 2005-4Shaw E2005[Blank]
Researching the educational benefits of diversity is necessary in order to offer evidence to judges, attorneys, and policymakers to uphold and support the consideration of race in college admissions. It is also important so that campuses continue to develop and refine diversity initiatives aimed at improving the success of all students. There are many different ways to research the educational benefits of diversity. Studies have examined student and faculty perceptions of the educational benefits of diversity, the links between monetary and nonmonetary returns to students, schools, and society and their diversity experiences in college, as well as the links between diversity experiences in college and various benefits. Experimental research has also been conducted in this area. Most of the findings from the research in this field suggest that experiences with diversity in higher education result in significant benefits on learning and democracy outcomes. This paper offers several examples of previous studies, as well as recommendations and considerations for institutions interested in designing and carrying out their own research studies on the educational benefits of diversity.
A Bridge for All: Higher Education Design Principles to Broaden Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering and MathematicsBuilding Engineering and Science Talent BEST (Building Engineering & Science Talent) 2004Publication_Type
Researching the educational benefits of diversity is necessary in order to offer evidence to judges, attorneys, and policymakers to uphold and support the consideration of race in college admissions. It is also important so that campuses continue to develop and refine diversity initiatives aimed at improving the success of all students. There are many different ways to research the educational benefits of diversity. Studies have examined student and faculty perceptions of the educational benefits of diversity, the links between monetary and nonmonetary returns to students, schools, and society and their diversity experiences in college, as well as the links between diversity experiences in college and various benefits. Experimental research has also been conducted in this area. Most of the findings from the research in this field suggest that experiences with diversity in higher education result in significant benefits on learning and democracy outcomes. This paper offers several examples of previous studies, as well as recommendations and considerations for institutions interested in designing and carrying out their own research studies on the educational benefits of diversity.
Cultural Diversity in Management, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation DimensionsAcademy of ManagementRichard OC2004Journal Article
Extending previous theorizing on cultural diversity’s organizational effects by integrating value-in-diversity and social identity perspectives with the framework of Blau’s (1977) theory of heterogeneity, we hypothesized curvilinear relationships between racial and gender diversity in management and firm performance. We evaluated relationships within the context of firm-level entrepreneurial orientation. Our empirical study indicated complex relationships among study variables. It revealed that innovativeness positively and risk taking negatively moderated nonlinear relationship patterns for both racial and gender heterogeneity. Research and practical implications are discussed.
Diversity: A Missing Link to ProfessionalismAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical EducationChisholm M2004Online Journal Article
This paper identifies and addresses the link between professionalism and diversity, not with the intention of criticizing colleges of pharmacy that lack diversity, but rather to further validate the necessity for increasing ethnic diversity within colleges of pharmacy. This article answers the questions: how does a lack of a diversified environment affect professionalism, how does diversity enhance professionalism and how diversified are colleges of pharmacy?
Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solversProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of AmericaHong Lu2004Journal Article15534225
We introduce a general framework for modeling functionally diverse problem-solving agents. In this framework, problem-solving agents possess representations of problems and algorithms that they use to locate solutions. We use this framework to establish a result relevant to group composition. We find that when selecting a problem-solving team from a diverse population of intelligent agents, a team of randomly selected agents outperforms a team comprised of the best-performing agents. This result relies on the intuition that, as the initial pool of problem solvers becomes large, the best-performing agents necessarily become similar in the space of problem solvers. Their relatively greater ability is more than offset by their lack of problem-solving diversity.
IOM ReportIOM ReportInstitute of Medicine 2004[Blank]
Increasing racial and ethnic diversity among health professionals is important because evidence indicates that diversity is associated with improved access to care for racial and ethnic minority patients, greater patient choice and satisfaction, and better educational experiences for health professions students, among many other benefits.The report examines institutional and policy-level strategies--defined as specific policies and programs of health professions schools, their associations and accreditation bodies, health care systems/organizations, and state and federal governments--to increase diversity among health professionals. Addressed in the report are an assessment and description of the potential benefits of greater diversity among health professionals and an assessment of strategies that may increase diversity in five areas including: * admissions policies and practices of health professions education institutions; * public (e.g., state and federal) sources of financial support for health professions training; * standards of health professions accreditation organizations pertaining to diversity; * the "institutional climate" for diversity at health professions education institutions; and * the relationship between Community Benefit principles and diversity.
Preserving Diversity in Higher Education: A Manual on Admissions Policies and Procedures After the University of Michigan DecisionsPreserving diversity in higher education: A manual on admissions policies and procedures after the University of Michigan decisions.Equal Justice Society 2004Book - Electronic Version
Institutions that implement race-conscious affirmative action programs in employment, whether remedial or designed to promote diversity, must therefore be prepared to defend their policies under several federal laws, and must assess the risk of pursuing policies that might be permissible under one standard but impermissible under another standard. This Chapter outlines the existing federal law applicable to affirmative action in faculty and staff hiring, explores Grutter’s applicability in this area, and provides general guidelines for the appropriate use of affirmative action hiring programs at both private and public institutions.
Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health careJournal of General Internal MedicineSaha S2004Journal Article15009789
OBJECTIVES To determine: 1) whether racial and ethnic differences exist in patients’ perceptions of primary care provider (PCP) and general health care system–related bias and cultural competence; and 2) whether these differences are explained by patient demographics, source of care, or patient-provider communication variables. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. SETTING The Commonwealth Fund 2001 Health Care Quality Survey. SUBJECTS A total of 6,299 white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian adults. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Interviews were conducted using random-digit dialing; oversampling respondents from communities with high racial/ethnic minority concentrations; and yielding a 54.3% response rate. Main outcomes address respondents’ perceptions of their PCPs’ and health care system–related bias and cultural competence; adjusted probabilities (Pr) are reported for each ethnic group. Most racial/ethnic differences in perceptions of PCP bias and cultural competence were explained by demographics, source of care, and patient–physician communication variables. In contrast, racial/ethnic differences in patient perceptions of health care system–wide bias and cultural competence persisted even after controlling for confounders: African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians remained more likely than whites (P < .001) to perceive that: 1) they would have received better medical care if they belonged to a different race/ethnic group (Pr 0.13, Pr 0.08, Pr 0.08, and Pr 0.01, respectively); and 2) medical staff judged them unfairly or treated them with disrespect based on race/ethnicity (Pr 0.06, Pr 0.04, Pr 0.06, and Pr 0.01, respectively) and how well they speak English (Pr 0.09, Pr 0.06, Pr 0.06, and Pr 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION While demographics, source of care, and patient–physician communication explain most racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of PCP cultural competence, differences in perceptions of health care system–wide bias and cultural competence are not fully explained by such factors. Future research should include closer examination of the sources of cultural bias in the US medical system.
Surface- and deep-level diversity in workgroups: Examining the moderating effects of team orientation and team process on relationship conflictJournal of Organizational BehaviorMohammed S2004Journal Article
The increased use of teams in organizations, coupled with an increasingly diverse workforce, strongly suggests that we should learn more about how team diversity affects functioning and performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the differential impact of surface-level diversity (gender, ethnicity), deep-level diversity (time urgency, extraversion), and two moderating variables (team orientation, team process) on relationship conflict over time. Hypotheses were tested by tracking 45 student project teams in a longitudinal design. Results revealed that team orientation and team process moderated the diversity–conflict link. Specifically, team orientation helped to neutralize the negative effects of surface-level (gender) diversity on relationship conflict. In a similar manner, team processes worked to weaken the deleterious effects of deep-level diversity (time urgency) on relationship conflict. In addition, relationship conflict resulted in lower perceived performance by team members.
The Benefits of Diversity in Education for Democratic CitizenshipJournal of Social IssuesGurin P2004Journal Article
The social science statement in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) stressed that desegregation would benefit both African American and White children. Eventually, it was recognized that integration, rather than mere desegregation, was important for benefits to be realized. A parallel argument is made in the legal cases concerning affirmative action in higher education: educational benefits of diversity depend on curricular and co-curricular experience with diverse peers, not merely on their co-existence in the same institution (Gurin, P., 1999, Gurin, Dey, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002). Positive benefits of diversity were demonstrated in a study comparing students in a curricular diversity program with students in a matched control group (n = 174), and in a longitudinal survey of University of Michigan students (n = 1670).
The case for diversity in academic internal medicineAmerican Journal of MedicineKing TE2004Journal Article14969662
The Association of Professors of Medicine (APM) is committed to ensuring that departments of internal medicine fulfill their tripartite mission of educating the next generation of physicians and other health care professionals, conducting groundbreaking research, and providing excellent patient care. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity within these departments is integral to achieving this mission. Chairs of departments of internal medicine and other leaders in academic medicine must take specific steps to increase diversity among students, residents, fellows, and faculty, not only because it is “the right thing to do,” but because it is “the smart thing to do” (1).
The Story Is Not in the Numbers: Academic Socialization and Diversifying FacultyNWSA JournalJackson J2004Journal Article
This report is of a descriptive study that explored differences by gender and race/ethnicity on measures of teaching, research, and service productivity of 665 tenured engineering faculty members in 19 research-intensive institutions. Data from a self-report survey were analyzed using inferential and descriptive methods. Comparisons among productivity levels of white male faculty and those of white women, and of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians, revealed little difference. Qualitative data on social experiences of the participants showed that women and faculty of color were more discouraged, less supported, and perceived the tenure process to be less fair, than their white male colleagues. I discuss implications of the findings for administrators and suggestions for diversifying the faculty.
Understanding the Effects of Workforce Diversity on Employment Outcomes: A Multidisciplinary and Comprehensive FrameworkResearch in the Sociology of Work: Diversity in the WorkforceDiTomaso N2004Journal Article
In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact of workforce diversity on labor market outcomes. We argue that to understand the impact of workforce diversity, we must consider the effects of power (the distribution of valued and scarce resources), status (the relationships among people and groups), and numbers (the compositional effects of the unit), whether in the work group, job, occupation, firm, or society. We then discuss the mechanisms that generate and reproduce these dimensions of inequality and explain how they contribute to everyday practices such as allocation decisions and evaluative processes and ultimately lead to sustained or durable inequality (e.g. labor force outcomes including attitudes, behaviors, and material and psychic rewards).
What Difference Does a Major Make? The Influence of College Major Field on Persistence by African American and White Students Research in Higher EducationSimmons A2004Journal Article
The results from this study indicate similarities and differences in the factors related to the persistence of White and African American students in their freshman and sophomore years in college. Using random samples of data from students enrolled in public institutions of higher education in a Midwestern state, OLS regression analyses indicated that African American sophomores in the high-demand major fields (e.g., Business, Health, and Engineering/Computer Science) were more likely to persist than were those in other major fields, but there were no statistically significant differences in persistence for African American freshmen in other fields. While major fields were not statistically significant for White sophomores, White freshmen in social sciences or undecided about their majors were less likely to persist. The effects of financial aid packages on persistence varied across race.
Compelling Interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universities, Chapter 5: The Educational Benefits of Diversity: Evidence from Multiple SectorsCompelling Interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universitiesMilem JF2003Single Chapter of Compiled Work
In this book, the authors examined literature about racism and its effects on individuals and institutions arguing that race-conscious policies address racial disparities more effectively than race-neutral policies. The authors discussed research on test scores and grades as indicators of a student’s capacity for academic success and argued that the definition of “merit” must be broadened. Also, the authors collected and discussed empirical evidence on the benefits of diversity on individuals, institutions, and the broader society. Their research showed that in order to reap the maximum benefits from diverse student body, diversity must be conceptualized broadly to encompass all aspects of the institution that affects education or campus life. In other words, all levels of the university must undergo a meaningful and substantive transformation to maximize diversity benefits.
A recurring theme: The need for minority physiciansHealth AffairsReede JY2003Journal Article12889755
There is compelling evidence for the need to increase diversity within the physician workforce to ensure high-quality medical education, access to health care for the underserved, advances in research, and improved business performance. To have enough physicians to meet the future needs of the general public, as well as of minority citizens, we must recruit from diverse populations. The need for physicians, particularly under-represented minorities, will continue to grow. Addressing shortages requires inventive efforts to counter obstacles created by the anti–affirmative action movement, as well as strategies to encourage institutions to become more engaged in diversity efforts.
Assessing Medical School Admissions Policies: Implications of the U.S. Supreme Court's Affirmative-Action DecisionsAAMC publicationAAMC 2003Single Chapter of Compiled Work
This document, which is not legal advice, has been designed to help medical schools work with legal counsel to put the rulings into practice. It focuses specifically on using the diversity rationale in building race-conscious/ethnicity-conscious admissions policies and offers: -brief summaries with an analysis of the Grutter and Gratz cases; -policy considerations associated with the Court’s rulings; -a list of considerations to help medical schools think about how to implement narrowly tailored, race-conscious/ethnicity-conscious admissions policies or assess existing policies; and -appendices that include: --historical highlights of affirmative action in education; and --selected references for readers to obtain more information about how the Court ruled and the implications of its rulings. While this document focuses exclusively on the diversity rationale because that rationale has withstood legal challenge, it may not be the only rationale justifying race-conscious/ethnicity conscious admissions policies. Depending on the circumstances, some observers believe that additional rationales may exist for implementing such policies at your institution. You should consult your institution’s general counsel to explore this possibility.
Blueprint for establishing an effective Postbaccalaureate medical school pre-entry program for educationally disadvantaged studentsAcad MedBlakely AW2003Journal Article12742777
The purpose of this article is to provide public and private medical schools with a pragmatic blueprint for the development and implementation of an effective medical school pre-entry program that increases the pool of students interested in returning to health care shortage areas. An ancillary benefit of this program is an increase in the number of underrepresented minority students to medical schools. The structure, experiences, and results of the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine's Postbaccalaureate Reapplicant Program are used as a case study to construct the blueprint for returning 85-90% of program participants to shortage areas while increasing minority student admissions. The UC Davis program has been in place since 1991 and post-program acceptance rates have varied from 57% to 100% with an overall acceptance rate of 90.4% through 1999-00. Of 115 participating students who had previously been rejected by medical schools, 104 were accepted to health professional programs: 95 students were accepted to major U.S. medical schools and nine were accepted to masters in public health programs, physician's assistant programs, and one international medical school. This success rate has been achieved through a combination of intense assistance in study skills and test-taking skills, academic course work, and academic and pre-professional counseling.
Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions educationAcad MedCarline JD2003Journal Article12742781
PURPOSE: To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. RESULTS: Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.
Compelling Interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universities, Chapter 1: IntroductionCompelling Interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universitiesWitt D2003Single Chapter of Compiled Work
In this book, the authors examined literature about racism and its effects on individuals and institutions arguing that race-conscious policies address racial disparities more effectively than race-neutral policies. The authors discussed research on test scores and grades as indicators of a student’s capacity for academic success and argued that the definition of “merit” must be broadened. Also, the authors collected and discussed empirical evidence on the benefits of diversity on individuals, institutions, and the broader society. Their research showed that in order to reap the maximum benefits from diverse student body, diversity must be conceptualized broadly to encompass all aspects of the institution that affects education or campus life. In other words, all levels of the university must undergo a meaningful and substantive transformation to maximize diversity benefits.
Diversification of U.S. medical schools via affirmative action implementationBMC Medical EducationLakhan SE2003Journal Article13678423
Background The diversification of medical school student and faculty bodies via race-conscious affirmative action policy is a societal and legal option for the U.S. Supreme Court has recently ruled its use constitutional. This paper investigates the implications of affirmative action, particularly race-conscious compared to race-blind admissions policy; explains how alternative programs are generally impractical; and provides a brief review of the history and legality of affirmative action in the United States. Discussion Selection based solely on academic qualifications such as GPA and MCAT scores does not achieve racial and ethnic diversity in medical school, nor does it adequately predict success as practicing physicians. However, race-conscious preference yields greater practice in underserved and often minority populations, furthers our biomedical research progression, augments health care for minority patients, and fosters an exceptional medical school environment where students are better able to serve an increasingly multicultural society. Summary The implementation of race-conscious affirmative action results in diversity in medicine. Such diversity has shown increased medical practice in underserved areas, thereby providing better health care for the American people.
Diversity Experiences and College Student Learning and Personal Development Journal of College Student DevelopmentHu S2003Journal Article
Using responses to The College Student Experience Questionnaire (CSEQ) from 53,756 undergraduates at 124 American four-year colleges and universities, this study examines the effects of interactional diversity experiences on a range of desirable outcomes for White students and students of color in different types of higher education institutions. Though White students had less contact with students from different backgrounds, such experiences positively affected the self-reported gains for both Whites and students of color at all types of colleges. These effects differed in magnitude, however, for White students and students of color, depending on the respective outcome measure and institutional type.
Educational Benefits of Diversity in Medical School: A Survey of StudentsAcademic MedicineWhitla D K2003Journal Article12742780
Many U.S. medical schools have abandoned affirmative action, limiting the recruitment and reducing the admission of underrepresented minority (URM) students even though research supports the premise that the dents public benefits from an increase in URM physicians and that URM physicians are likely to serve minority, poor, and Medicaid populations. Faculty and students commonly assume they benefit from peer cultural exchange, and the published evidence for the past two decades supports this notion. This research examined the students' perceptions of the educational merits of a diverse student body by surveying medical students at two schools. In 2000, medical students from all four years at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine were enrolled in a telephone survey about the relevance of racial diversity in their medical education. Students responded to the interviewer's questions on a five-point Likert-type scale. Of the 55% of students who could be located, 97% responded to the survey. Students reported contacts with diverse peers greatly enhanced their educational experience. Diversity in the student body enhanced the educational experiences of students in two U.S. medical schools.
Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careersAcad MedFang D2003Journal Article14660432
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. METHOD: Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. RESULTS: Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. CONCLUSIONS: The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.
Employing an innovation strategy in racially diverse workforces: Effects on firm performanceGroup Organization Management Richard O2003Journal Article
This study explored racial diversity’s influence on firm performance. A national sample of 177 banks was used to first test competing hypotheses supported by the resource-based view of the firm and social identity theory that posited positive and negative direct effects, respectively, of racial diversity on organizational performance. No support was found for either prediction. However, a contingency theory-based hypothesis was supported. A moderation effect indicated that racial diversity’s association with performance was contingent on firms’ level of innovation. Specifically, racial diversity enhanced performance for banks pursuing an innovation strategy, whereas for banks low in innovation, performance declined. The results suggest that a racially diverse workforce in conjunction with an innovation-focused business strategy may provide firms a competitive advantage. This study thus supports a contingency/resource-based perspective that states that racial diversity, as a knowledge-based resource, needs to be set in an appropriate context to fully realize its potential benefits.
Increasing Access to Medical Education for Students from Medically Underserved Communities: One Program’s SuccessAcad MedThomson WA2003Journal Article12742779
Describes the Premedical Honors College (PHC), an eight-year, BS-MD program created by Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas-Pan American to increase the number of physicians addressing underserved populations in Texas. An outcomes study comparing PHC matriculants with students of similar academic ability, ethnicity, and interest in medicine revealed that the odds of medical school matriculation were seven times higher for PHC students than for non-PHC students.
Minority Children in Pediatric ResearchAmerican Journal of Law & MedicineRoss LF2003Journal Article12961810
Children's health issues, however, receive only a small fraction of these funds. ... The researchers acknowledged that race and ethnicity do not usually imply direct causal links in terms of disease risk or drug response, but that they provide a starting point for further investigation. ... To address this issue, we conducted an empirical project to examine: (1) the extent to which pediatric researchers are reporting R/E data; (2) whether researchers are reporting other demographic data that might help explain racial and ethnic differences; (3) the representation of black and Hispanic children and their parents in pediatric medical research; (4) whether the pediatric researchers believe that R/E is relevant to their research; and (5) whether the pediatric researchers believe that social markers (SM) might be more useful than R/E in explaining their research findings. ... One possible explanation for the overrepresentation of black children is the location of the academic medical centers in poor urban sites with a large minority population, from which the majority of subjects for pediatric research are recruited. ... Directive 15 allows for Hispanic data to be collected as a race or as an ethnicity, whereas the U.S. census collects Hispanic data as only an ethnicity.
Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising: Are differences in Black and White? Journal of Applied PsychologyAvery DR2003Journal Article12940407
The portrayal of racial diversity in corporate recruitment advertisements has become increasingly common. Despite widespread sentiment that ad diversity attracts a broader scope of applicants, empirical research on this topic is sparse. Consequently, the present study manipulated ad diversity at 2 hierarchical levels to assess its impact on organizational attractiveness for 273 Black and White university students. In contrast to the predictions of relational demography, White viewers exhibited no effect for ad diversity. Black viewers were attracted by ad diversity but only when it extended to supervisory level positions. More importantly, the effect of race on reactions to ad diversity was contingent on the viewer's openness to racial diversity (other-group orientation).
Symposium - Racial Disparities in Health Care and Cultural CompetencySaint Louis University Law JournalIkemoto LC2003Journal Article
... The basic premise of cultural competency is that the near monoculture of the health care system interferes with the care of the growing number of patients who are not part of that culture. ... Other studies also show a strong correlation between racial and cultural concordance between the patient and the physician and overall patient satisfaction with the quality of health care. ... First, most definitions of cultural competence in health care acknowledge that health care has a culture of its own and that cultural competency requires adjusting that culture to provide care for a diverse population of patients. ... A second approach to cultural competence recognizes the racism embedded in health care culture, but it assumes that changing certain cultural practices and skills will be sufficient. ... This framework explicitly identifies racism as the problem, and includes tools that can be used both proactively and reactively against the creation and implementation of racially exclusive rules and practices in the bureaucratic and medical aspects of health care, as well as against provider bias. ... More specifically, HHS, using Title VI, should require broader cultural competency requirements than language assistance to enable full access to effective health care and accompanying social services. ... Arguably, cultural competence in health care could substantially transform health care culture into a set of inclusive standards, practices, and norms that result in quality care for patients (at least, privately and publicly insured patients)...
The consequences of premature abandonment of affirmative action in medical school admissionsJAMACohen JJ2003Journal Article12622585
The US Supreme Court recently accepted on appeal 2 cases from the University of Michigan regarding the constitutionality of race-conscious decision making in higher education admissions. The consequences of the Court's decision will directly affect the future of medicine in the United States. Medical schools have a societal obligation to select and educate the physician workforce of the future. To outlaw the use of affirmative action in the admissions process would cripple the profession's ability to achieve racial and ethnic diversity. Preserving this diversity in medical school admissions programs is important for 4 major reasons (1) adequate representation among students and faculty of the diversity in US society is indispensable for quality medical education; (2) increasing the diversity of the physician workforce will improve access to health care for underserved populations; (3) increasing the diversity of the research workforce can accelerate advances in medical and public health research; and (4) diversity among managers of health care organizations makes good business sense. This article explores these reasons in detail, reviews the history and effectiveness of affirmative action in medical school admissions programs, and explains why alternatives to affirmative action are unworkable.
The Effects of Diversity on Business Performance: Report of the Diversity Research NetworkHuman Resource ManagementKochan T2003Journal Article
This article summarizes the results and conclusions reached in studies of the relationships between race and gender diversity and business performance carried out in four large firms by a research consortium known as the Diversity Research Network. These researchers were asked by the BOLD Initiative to conduct this research to test arguments regarding the "business case" for diversity. Few positive or negative direct effects of diversity on performance were observed. Instead a number of different aspects of the organizational context and some group processes moderated diversity-performance relationships. This suggests a more nuanced view of the "business case" for diversity may be appropriate.
The Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in Clinical ResearchAmerican Journal of Law & MedicineNoah BA2003Journal Article12961806
Recent data on clinical trial participation suggest that, in addition to disparities in HIV treatment trials, there has been little improvement in other types of research, including trials of asthma and lupus treatments, occupational cancer studies and cancer prevention studies. ... For example, sponsors of clinical trials for HIV therapies encourage researchers to recruit participants with characteristics perceived to increase the likelihood of protocol compliance and to eschew participants in "marginalized populations" such as members of minority groups, low-income persons and non-English speaking populations. ... Principal investigators who wish to encourage potential subjects to participate in research must take the time to explain important concepts common to clinical trials, including the meaning of randomization, blinding, placebo controls and the respective responsibilities of the trial investigator and the participant. ... Despite these differing perspectives on the issue, the NIH strongly encourages researchers to explore the causes of varying rates of disease among different races and ethnicities, and the growing scientific interest in the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in research has led to a new wave of clinical trials that focus exclusively on the health needs of certain minority populations. ... Although the research community now appears more attentive to issues of minority participation in clinical trials, the regulatory scheme designed to protect human research participants fails in several respects to provide optimal protection to individuals who choose to enroll in clinical trials.
Diversity and Higher Education: Theory and Impact on Educational Outcomes (CIRP Study)Harvard Educational ReviewGurin P2002Journal Article
In the current context of legal challenges to affirmative action and race-based considerations in college admissions, educators have been challenged to articulate clearly the educational purposes and benefits of diversity. In this article, Patricia Gurin, Eric Dey, Sylvia Hurtado, and Gerald Gurin explore the relationship between students’ experiences with diverse peers in the college or university setting and their educational outcomes. Rooted in theories of cognitive development and social psychology, the authors present a framework for understanding how diversity introduces the relational discontinuities critical to identity construction and its subsequent role in fostering cognitive growth. Using both singleand multi-institutional data from the University of Michigan and the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, the authors go on to examine the effects of classroom diversity and informal interaction among African American, Asian American, Latino/a, and White students on learning and democracy outcomes. The results of their analyses underscore the educational and civic importance of informal interaction among different racial and ethnic groups during the college years. The authors offer their findings as evidence of the continuing importance of affirmative action and diversity efforts by colleges and universities, not only as a means of increasing access to higher education for greater numbers of students, but also as a means of fostering students’ academic and social growth
Health science learning academy: a successful "pipeline" educational program for high school studentsAcad MedFincher RM2002Journal Article12114154
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Health Professions Partnership Initiative is to increase the number of underrepresented minority Georgia residents who become health care professionals by (1) creating a pipeline of well-qualified high school and college students interested in health care careers, (2) increasing the number of well-qualified applicants to medical and other health professions schools, and (3) increasing the number of underrepresented minority students at the Medical College of Georgia (MCG). DESCRIPTION: The Health Professions Partnership Initiative at MCG was created in 1996 by collaboration among the MCG Schools of Medicine and Nursing, two Augusta high schools attended primarily by underrepresented minority students, three historically black colleges and universities, the Fort Discovery National Science Center of Augusta, community service organizations, and MCG student organizations. The project was funded by the Association of American Medical Colleges and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The high school component, the Health Science Learning Academy (HSLA), was designed to strengthen the students' educational backgrounds and interest in professional careers as evidenced by increased standardized test scores and numbers of students entering college and health professions schools. Additional goals included a system to track students' progress throughout the pipeline as well as professional development sessions to enrich faculty members' knowledge and enhance their teaching expertise. The HSLA began with ninth-grade students from the two high schools. During its second year, funding from the Health 1st Foundation allowed inclusion of another high school and expansion to ninth grade through twelfth grade. The HSLA's enrichment classes meet for three hours on 18 Saturday mornings during the academic year and include computer-interactive SAT preparation and English composition (tenth grade); biology, algebra, calculus, and English composition (eleventh grade); and advanced mathematics and biology (twelfth grade). DISCUSSION: The ultimate solution to the paucity of underrepresented minority physicians resides largely in successful pipeline programs that expand the pool of well-qualified applicants, matriculants, and graduates from medical schools. Intermediate results of the HSLA support the success of the program. Since its creation in the 1996-1997 academic year, 203 students have participated in the HSLA and all 38 (from the original two schools) who completed the four-year program have enrolled in college. The mean SAT score for students who completed the HSLA program was 1,066, compared with a mean of 923 for all college-bound students in the participating schools. The mean increases in SAT scores for students who completed the four-year program were.5% (1,100 to 1,105) for students attending a magnet high school and 18% (929 to 1,130) for students attending the comprehensive high school. The mean overall increases in SAT scores for students in the two high schools were 1% (1,044 to 1,048) and 9.1% (765 to 834), respectively. The HSLA is accomplishing its goals and, while it is too early to know if these students will participate in MCAT preparatory programs and apply to medical and other health professions schools, their sustained commitment and enthusiasm bode well for continued success.
Racial Matching Among African-American and Hispanic Physicians and PatientsThe Journal of Human ResourcesStinson Martha2002Online Journal Article
It is widely known that minority doctors have more patients of their own race and ethnicity than would be predicted by random distribution, but most measures of racial matching do not control for physician specialty, practice setting, or location. When we control for these variables, differences by doctor's race are much smaller and. in many cases, not statistically significant, suggesting that simply increasing the number of minority physicians may not be the best way to increase access for under-served populations. However, we do find some evidence of culture-specific human capital (in the form of language ability) for Hispanics.
The impact of visible diversity on organizational effectiveness: Disclosing the contents in Pandora's black boxJournal of Business and ManagementRichard OC2002Journal Article
We offer a theoretical model to clarify the impact that visible diversity has on firm effectiveness. In particular, we outline the key determinants of diversity and synthesize previous literature that has explored the impact visible diversity has on organizational processes-conflict types-and outcomes. The main focus of our model, however, is concerned with the curvilinearity of the relationship between visible diversity and firm outcomes. We also explore contextual factors, which are relevant when modeling the diversity-- organizational effectiveness relationship. In sum, we offer a framework for understanding what conditions may be necessary to obtain positive organizational effects from visible diversity. Implications for future research and practice are also offered.
Upping the Numbers: Using Research-Based Decision Making to Increase Diversity in the Quantitative Disciplines GE FoundationCampbell P2002Publication_Type
We offer a theoretical model to clarify the impact that visible diversity has on firm effectiveness. In particular, we outline the key determinants of diversity and synthesize previous literature that has explored the impact visible diversity has on organizational processes-conflict types-and outcomes. The main focus of our model, however, is concerned with the curvilinearity of the relationship between visible diversity and firm outcomes. We also explore contextual factors, which are relevant when modeling the diversity-- organizational effectiveness relationship. In sum, we offer a framework for understanding what conditions may be necessary to obtain positive organizational effects from visible diversity. Implications for future research and practice are also offered.
Chapter 1: Student Diversity and Higher LearningDiversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative ActionRudenstine N2001Single Chapter of Compiled Work
A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This chapter traces the evolution of the concept of diversity in higher education, noting the real but slow progress in achieving greater inclusion. It highlights Harvard University's experiences, demonstrating why the goal of diversity remains so important to the actual quality and breadth of education for all students and why Harvard's existing policies offer an effective pathway to the future. It begins by discussing the early origins of diversity, then examines civil rights legislation and the Supreme Court's 1978 decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, which addressed both the legality of racial quotas in admissions and the use of race or ethnicity as factors in admissions decisions. The next section discusses policy alternatives concerning student diversity and admissions in the post-Bakke era, commenting on several arguments advanced by critics of affirmative action in college admissions (e.g., affirmative action programs highlight the wrong target, run the risk of stigmatizing and thus injuring the very people they are supposed to help, and are unfair because they deny admission to students with high test scores in favor of students with less impressive objective records). The importance of strengthening and sustaining higher education's commitment to diversity is stressed.
Chapter 1: Student Diversity and Higher LearningDiversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative ActionRudenstine NL2001Single Chapter of Compiled Work
This chapter traces the evolution of the concept of diversity in higher education, noting the real but slow progress in achieving greater inclusion. It highlights Harvard University's experiences, demonstrating why the goal of diversity remains so important to the actual quality and breadth of education for all students and why Harvard's existing policies offer an effective pathway to the future. It begins by discussing the early origins of diversity, then examines civil rights legislation and the Supreme Court's 1978 decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, which addressed both the legality of racial quotas in admissions and the use of race or ethnicity as factors in admissions decisions. The next section discusses policy alternatives concerning student diversity and admissions in the post-Bakke era, commenting on several arguments advanced by critics of affirmative action in college admissions (e.g., affirmative action programs highlight the wrong target, run the risk of stigmatizing and thus injuring the very people they are supposed to help, and are unfair because they deny admission to students with high test scores in favor of students with less impressive objective records). The importance of strengthening and sustaining higher education's commitment to diversity is stressed.
In Pursuit of a Diverse Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Workforce: Recommeded Research Priorities to Enhance Participation by Underrepresented MinoritiesAAASMalcom S2001[Blank]
In our efforts to sustain U.S. productivity and economic strength, underrepresented minorities (URM) (for the purpose of this paper defined as persons of African American, Hispanic American, and Native American racial/ethnic descent), provide an untapped reservoir of talent that could be used to fill technical jobs. Over the past 25 years, educational diversity programs have encouraged and supported URM pursuing STEM degrees. Yet, their representation in STEM still lags far behind that of White, non-Hispanic men. We identified three research priorities for URM in STEM from the high school years to the professoriate: Improve methodology; Improve research Linkages; Explore new research areas.
Is Campus Racial Diversity Correlated with Educational Benefits? Academic QuestionsWood T E2001Journal Article
The University of Michigan is distorting and misrepresenting the research findings at issue in a momentous constitutional question now before the federal courts. In defending its use of racial preferences in undergraduate and law school admissions, the University asserts that there is a positive connection between racial diversity and beneficial educational outcomes. In fact, the very database on which the University of Michigan relies shows that there is no such connection. This was first pointed out in the amicus brief submitted by the National Association of Scholars in Gratz v. Bollinger in July 2000. Our present report comprises the first full, in-depth explication of the errors on which the University of Michigan has based its case.
The influence of demographic heterogeneity on the emergence and consequences of cooperative norms in work teamsAcademy of Management JournalChatman JA2001Journal Article
Drawing from social categorization theory, we found that greater demographic heterogeneity led to group norms emphasizing lower cooperation among student teams and officers from ten business units of a financial services firm. This effect faded over time. Perceptions of team norms among those more demographically different from their work group changed more, becoming more cooperative, as a function of contact with other members. Finally, cooperative norms mediated the relationship between group composition and work outcomes.
The Meanings of "Race" in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities ResearchYale Journal of Health Policy, Law and EthicsLee SSJ2001Journal Article12669320
Eliminating the well-documented health disparities found within the United States population is a laudable public policy goal. ... We offer an historical analysis of how the concept of race has changed in the United States and discuss the reification of race in health research. ... We will argue against using race as a biological category in health research. ... The taxonomy of race used in health research is primarily political. ... The Reification of Race in Health Research ... Recent research on smoking and nicotine metabolism illustrates the implications of the reification of the race concept in health research. ... We support these editorial policies and hope that such moves will lead to a critical re-examination of the meaning of race in health research and a heightened understanding of how racial classifications influence the production of medical knowledge. ... What alternatives exist to using the word race? When considering the health effects of racism, we prefer the term "racialized" group or population, to emphasize that the concept of race is historically contingent. ... Finally, we recognize that a major challenge to eliminating the careless use of "race" in health research stems from a disjuncture between the goals of scientific investigation and those of public policy.
The Role of Interracial Interaction in the Development of Leadership Skills and Cultural Knowledge and Understanding Research in Higher EducationAntonio AL2001Journal Article
Eliminating the well-documented health disparities found within the United States population is a laudable public policy goal. ... We offer an historical analysis of how the concept of race has changed in the United States and discuss the reification of race in health research. ... We will argue against using race as a biological category in health research. ... The taxonomy of race used in health research is primarily political. ... The Reification of Race in Health Research ... Recent research on smoking and nicotine metabolism illustrates the implications of the reification of the race concept in health research. ... We support these editorial policies and hope that such moves will lead to a critical re-examination of the meaning of race in health research and a heightened understanding of how racial classifications influence the production of medical knowledge. ... What alternatives exist to using the word race? When considering the health effects of racism, we prefer the term "racialized" group or population, to emphasize that the concept of race is historically contingent. ... Finally, we recognize that a major challenge to eliminating the careless use of "race" in health research stems from a disjuncture between the goals of scientific investigation and those of public policy.
A Challenge for the New Millennium: Eliminating Health Disparities and Achieving Educational and Workforce Diversity Environmental Health PerspectivesTownsel J2000Journal Article11102305
The long-term health, technologic, and economic well-being of the United States is contingent upon the development of an appropriate, talented scientific, technologic, and engineering workforce. The NIH is a major participant in this initiative and is committed to the development of a trans-NIH strategic plan to eliminate domestic health disparities by 2010. A central component of this plan focuses on medical research and research training. Moreover, each institute and center of the NIH has been directed to enlist the aid of its advisory councils and constituency groups to develop its own Health Disparities Strategic Plan. The trans-NIH plan will increase support for biomedical, behavioral, and social science research on health disparities, and for effective communication of research results to health professionals, communities, and others. It will also address the need to expand the size and diversity of the scientific workforce committed to reducing health disparities.
Beyond Affirmative Action: One School's Experiences with a Race-neutral Admission ProcessAcademic MedicineEdwards Janine2000Journal Article10965858
The authors first review the national debate about affirmative action programs, examine the results of these programs in higher education, and present data from 1995 through 1999 for minority enrollment in U.S., California, and Texas medical schools. Population projections for the state of Texas indicate a national trend that minority groups will outnumber the current majority early in the new millennium. A brief review of studies of the practice patterns of minority physicians concludes that minority physicians serve patients of their own races and/or ethnicities, poor patients, and Medicaid patients in disproportion to their numbers. This rationale, as well as the humanitarian need to develop all persons to their highest potential, led the Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine to develop a race-neutral process for admission. Changes in the admission process are described and preliminary results are presented. This article is written to stimulate other medical colleges to engage in an ongoing dialog about admission criteria and processes that can effectively select applicants who fit the mission of each medical college and who, as physicians, will care for patients who are members of this country's burgeoning minority groups. Affirmative action is a burning issue in the United States today. Accepted throughout our society for almost 30 years, affirmative action programs, policies, and procedures are now being systematically attacked. Opponents believe that affirmative action embraces racial preferences that threaten fundamental values of fairness and equality.1 In this article, we first review the national debate about affirmative action programs, examine the results of these programs in higher education, present data from 1995 through 1999 for underrepresented minority enrollments in U.S., California, and Texas medical schools, and briefly indicate findings showing that minority physicians serve patients of their own races and/or ethnicities, poor patients, and Medicaid patients in disproportion to these physicians' numbers. The rationale suggested by this fact, plus the goal of developing all persons to their highest potential, led, beginning in 1998, to experimentation in the admission process at the Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, an initiative we describe and discuss in the rest of the article.
Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology DevelopmentCongressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology DevelopmentSchechtman KB2000Government Publication
As we enter the twenty-first century, U.S. jobs are growing most rapidly in areas that require knowledge and skills stemming from a strong grasp of science, engineering, and technology. In some quarters—primarily information technology— business leaders are warning of a critical shortage in skilled American workers that is threatening their ability to compete in the global marketplace. Yet, if women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities were represented in the U.S. science, engineering, and technology (SET) workforce in parity with their percentages in the total workforce population, this shortage could largely be ameliorated. Equally important as an adequate number of science, engineering, and technological workers is the nation’s ability to prepare for the evolving nature of work of the future, including jobs as yet unimagined.
Diversity and TradeThe American Economic ReviewGrossman G2000Journal Article
As we enter the twenty-first century, U.S. jobs are growing most rapidly in areas that require knowledge and skills stemming from a strong grasp of science, engineering, and technology. In some quarters—primarily information technology— business leaders are warning of a critical shortage in skilled American workers that is threatening their ability to compete in the global marketplace. Yet, if women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities were represented in the U.S. science, engineering, and technology (SET) workforce in parity with their percentages in the total workforce population, this shortage could largely be ameliorated. Equally important as an adequate number of science, engineering, and technological workers is the nation’s ability to prepare for the evolving nature of work of the future, including jobs as yet unimagined.
Do patients choose physicians of their own race?Health AffairsSaha S2000Journal Article10916962
Determines whether minorities in the United States tend to see physicians of their own race as a matter of choice or simply because minority physicians are more conveniently located within predominantly minority communities. Personal preference and language reasons of Afro-Americans and Hispanic Americans who sought care from physicians of their own race, not solely because of geography accessibility.
How to Diversify the FacultyAcademe OnlineSmith D2000Online Magazine Article
It should be clear by now that a schizoid condition characterizes the current discourse about diversity. Each side supports its position with competing anecdotes. To supply some empirical evidence, a research team at the Claremont Graduate University decided in 1996 to study how the job market treats potential faculty members-especially the minority-group scholars among them. I was a member of that team.We wanted the study to include the most desirable job candidates, so we invited all the recipients of the prestigious Ford, Mellon, and Spencer Fellowships who had completed their Ph.D.'s from 1989 to 1995 to participate. We interviewed 299 of the 393 scholars, or 78 percent. African Americans accounted for 26 percent of the sample, Asian Pacific Islanders for 4 percent, European Americans for 35 percent, Latinos for 32 percent, and Native Americans for 3 percent. This sample, half of whom were women, included scientists from underrepresented minority groups.
Medical Schools, Affirmative Action, and the Neglected Role of Social ClassAmerican Journal of Public HealthMagnus Stephen2000Online Journal Article10936995
Medical schools’ affirmative action policies traditionally focus on race and give relatively little consideration to applicants’ socioeconomic status or “social class.” However, recent challenges to affirmative action have raised the prospect of using social class, instead of race, as the basis for preferential admissions decisions in an effort to maintain or increase student diversity. This article reviews the evidence for class-based affirmative action in medicine and concludes that it might be an effective supplement to, rather than a replacement for, race-based affirmative action. The authors consider the research literature on (1) medical students’ socioeconomic background, (2) the impact of social class on medical treatment and physician–patient communication, and (3) correlations between physicians’ socioeconomic origins and their service patterns to the disadvantaged. They also reference sociological literature on distinctions between race and class and Americans’ discomfort with “social class.”
Mentoring and DiversityAmerican Economic ReviewAthey S2000Journal Article
We study how diversity evolves at a firm with entry-level and upper-level employees who vary in ability and "type" (gender or ethnicity). The ability of entry-level employees is increased by mentoring. An employee receives more mentoring when more upper-level employees have the same type. Optimal promotions are biased by type, and this bias may favor either the minority or the majority. We characterize possible steady states, including a "glass ceiling," where the upper level remains less diverse than the entry level. A firm may have multiple steady states, whereby temporary affirmative-action policies have a long-run impact.
Pathways to Success: Affirming Opportunities for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering MajorsThe Journal of Negro EducationBonous-Hammarth M2000Journal Article
Using cross-tabulations, factor analyses, and logistic regressions, this study examined the flow out of and into science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) majors of a cohort of African American, American Indian, and Chicano/Latino undergraduates (N=330) and factors associated with persistence in those majors. The targeted minorities experienced greater attrition from SME majors than did White and Asian Americans. Females from targeted groups showed the largest outflow, followed by their male counterparts. Person-organization "fit" and peer values related to campus activism and engagement were negatively associated with SME persistence. The absence of person-organization fit influence for targeted minorities suggests a need for further study on the relevance of established SME values, educational inequity, self-selectivity, and other influences that limit minority SME representation.
Racial and ethnic disparities in faculty promotion in academic medicineJAMAFang D2000Journal Article10974686
CONTEXT: Previous studies have suggested that minority medical school faculty are at a disadvantage in promotion opportunities compared with white faculty. OBJECTIVE: To compare promotion rates of minority and white medical school faculty in the United States. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analysis of data from the Association of American Medical Colleges' Faculty Roster System, the official data system for tracking US medical school faculty. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 50,145 full-time US medical school faculty who became assistant professors or associate professors between 1980 and 1989. Faculty of historically black and Puerto Rican medical schools were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Attainment of associate or full professorship among assistant professors and full professorship among associate professors by 1997, among white, Asian or Pacific Islander (API), underrepresented minority (URM; including black, Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Native American, and Native Alaskan), and other Hispanic faculty. RESULTS: By 1997, 46% of white assistant professors (13,479/28,953) had been promoted, whereas 37% of API (1123/2997; P<.001), 30% of URM (311/1053, P<.001), and 43% of other Hispanic assistant professors (256/598; P =.07) had been promoted. Similarly, by 1997, 50% of white associate professors (7234/14,559) had been promoted, whereas 44% of API (629/1419; P<.001), 36% of URM (101/280; P<.001), and 43% of other Hispanic (122/286; P =.02) associate professors had been promoted. Racial/ethnic disparities in promotion were evident among tenure and nontenure faculty and among faculty who received and did not receive National Institutes of Health research awards. After adjusting for cohort, sex, tenure status, degree, department, medical school type, and receipt of NIH awards, URM faculty remained less likely to be promoted compared with white faculty (relative risk [RR], 0.68 [99% confidence interval CI, 0.59-0.77] for assistant professors and 0.81 [99% CI, 0.65-0.99] for associate professors). API assistant professors also were less likely to be promoted (RR, 0.91 [99% CI, 0.84-0.98]), whereas API associate professors and other Hispanic assistant and associate professors were promoted at comparable rates. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that minority faculty are promoted at lower rates compared with white faculty.
Racial Diversity, Business Strategy, and Firm Performance: A Resource-Based ViewAcademy of ManagementRichard OC2000Journal Article
Although "valuing diversity" has become a watchword, field research on the impact of a culturally diverse workforce on organizational performance has not been forthcoming. Invoking a resource-based framework, in this study I examined the relationships among cultural (racial) diversity, business strategy, and firm performance in the banking industry. Racial diversity interacted with business strategy in determining firm performance measured in three different ways, as productivity, return on equity, and market performance. The results demonstrate that cultural diversity does in fact add value and, within the proper context, contributes to firm competitive advantage.
The impact of multiple predictors on generalist physicians’ care of underserved populationsAmerican Journal of Public HealthRabinowitz H K2000Journal Article10937001
Objectives. This study examined the relative and incremental importance of multiple predictors of generalist physicians' care of underserved populations. Methods. Survey results from a 1993 national random sample of 2955 allopathic and osteopathic generalist physicians who graduated from medical school in 1983 or 1984 were analyzed. Results. Four independent predictors of providing care to underserved populations were (1) being a member of an underserved ethnic/minority group, (2) having participated in the National Health Service Corps, (3) having a strong interest in practicing in an underserved area prior to attending medical school, and (4) growing up in an underserved area. Eighty-six percent of physicians with all 4 predictors were providing substantial care to underserved populations, compared with 65% with 3 predictors, 49% with 2 predictors, 34% with 1 predictor, and 22% with no predictors. Sex, family income when growing up, and curricular exposure to underserved populations during medical school were not independently related to caring for the underserved. Conclusions. A small number of factors appear to be highly predictive of generalist physicians' care for the underserved, and most of these predictive factors can be identified at the time of admission to medical school.
The respective racial and ethnic diversity of US pediatricians and American childrenPediatricsBrotherton SE2000Journal Article10617700
BACKGROUND: Much effort has been directed toward increasing the training of physicians from underrepresented minority groups, yet few direct comparisons have examined the diversity of the racial/ethnic backgrounds of the physicians relative to the patient populations they serve, either currently or into the future. This has been particularly true in the case of pediatrics, in which little information has emerged regarding the racial/ethnic backgrounds of pediatricians, yet evidence points to ever-growing diversity in the US child population. OBJECTIVE: We embarked on a comparative analysis to examine trends in the racial and ethnic composition of pediatricians vis-a-vis the patient population they serve, America's infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: Data on US pediatricians sorted by racial/ethnic group came from Association of American Medical Colleges distribution data and is based on the cohort of pediatricians graduating from US medical schools between 1983 and 1989 extrapolated to the total number of pediatricians actively practicing in 1996. Data on the demographic diversity of the US child population came from the US Census Bureau. We derived pediatrician-to-child population ratios (PCPRs) specific to racial/ethnic groups to measure comparative diversity between and among groups. RESULTS: Our results show that the black PCPR, currently less than one third of the white PCPR, will fall from 14.3 pediatricians per 100 000 children in 1996 to 12 by 2025. The Hispanic PCPR will fall from 16.9 in 1996 to 9.2 in 2025. The American Indian/Alaska Native PCPR will drop from 7.8 in 1996 to 6.5 by the year 2025. The PCPR specific to the Asian/Pacific Islander group will decline from 52.9 in 1996 to 26.1 in 2025. For whites, the PCPR will increase from 47.8 to 54.2 during this period. For 1996, each of the 5 PCPRs is significantly different from the comparison ratio. The same is true for 2025. For the time trend comparison (between 1996 and 2025), there is a significant difference for each ratio except for American Indian/Alaska Native. CONCLUSION: The racial and ethnic makeup of the US child population is currently far more diverse than that of the pediatricians who provide their health care services. If child population demographic projections hold true, and no substantial shifts transpire in the composition of the pediatric workforce, the disparities will increase substantially by the year 2025.
Mentoring program for minority faculty at the University of Pennsylvania School of MedicineAcad MedJohnson JC1999Journal Article10219215
Research indicates that having a faculty mentor and being part of an active network of peers are critical ingredients of successful academic medicine careers. Minority physicians, however, often do not have mentors, and the problem is greatest for minority groups underrepresented in medicine. The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1994-1996 undertook to learn the extent of mentoring programs in its departments and divisions and to compare the experiences of underrepresented-minority faculty and others. The results were used to establish a system for mentoring and networking support for minority faculty members. Examining the reports of division and department heads on their formal mentoring programs, it was clear that these leaders considered a mentor essential for career development, but many reported having no systematic plan for mentors for junior faculty. In looking at the reported experiences of minority and non-minority assistant professors (matched for promotion track, department, appointment date, and, where possible, gender), it was found that approximately half of either group did not have mentors. As a result of this information, the school established a faculty development program to meet the faculty members' demonstrated needs: annual career development meetings with new minority faculty; assistance in identifying and assigning mentors; assistance in developing research skills; and monitoring of the retention of minority faculty. As experience with the program produces additional insights into the needs of minority faculty--and particularly of junior faculty--the program will be adjusted and expanded to meet these identified needs.
Team innovation and perceptions of consideration: What difference does diversity make?Small Group ResearchCady SH1999Journal Article
This article presents an authentic field study, which used an entropy-based formula to measure team diversity, of 50 teams. The data were collected in a division of a high-tech, Fortune 500 company. The results revealed that diversity (race, age, sex, and function) had no impact on quality of innovation, whereas sex and race had a negative and positive impact, respectively, on quantity of innovation. It was also found that race and sex negatively influenced perceptions of teaming consideration.
Extending the pipeline for minority physicians: a comprehensive program for minority faculty developmentAcad MedJohnson JC1998Journal Article9526450
Medical schools must become more successful in training minority faculty. Minority faculty development programs at schools of medicine must involve trainees from the undergraduate years (if not before) through junior faculty and must involve MD and combine-degree (MD-PhD) students. The authors describe the comprehensive minority faculty development program at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, which involves minority undergraduates, medical students, residents, fellows, and faculty. This program provides the administrative staff and research methodologists to assist trainees at all levels across all departments in the school of medicine. The principal student recruitment program is the undergraduate premedicine enrichment program. The medical student component provides general counseling, research development, and activities to enhance performance in the clinical courses. The components for advanced trainees (residents, fellows, and postdoctoral trainees) and faculty consist of training in research methods, mentoring, teaching skills, and scientific writing skills. Through this program, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine has increased the number of under-represented minority faculty by 32% since 1993-94 and created an environment conducive to the professional growth and development of minority faculty.
Impact of minority physicians on health careSouthern Medical JournalThurmond V B1998Online Journal Article9824180
Examines the role of minority physicians in providing access to health care. Information on minority groups in relation to health care reform; Minority representation in the medical profession; Programs to increase representation in health profession; Methods. A review of the literature was completed to examine the relationship between opportunities for underrepresented minorities in medical education and the role of minority physicians in providing access to health care for underserved populations. The current number of minority physicians in the United States is discussed, and a historical perspective is provided regarding efforts to increase the numbers. Results. The data consistently indicate that minority physicians provide a disproportionately greater share of health care to underserved groups. Conclusion. These findings reveal that there may be a significant negative impact on access to health care among poor, minority, and underserved populations as a result of judicial and legislative actions that curtail affirmative action programs in medical education.
Medical student diversity--elective or required?Academic MedicineBurrows G1998Journal Article9795620
(None provided) Burrows highlights and discusses reasons why diversity is important in the medical profession, both during training and in practice, briefly outlines the current state of underrepresented minority admissions, and stresses the importance of financial support for these groups.
Physician supply and medical education in California - A comparison with national trendsWestern Journal of MedicineGrumbach K1998Journal Article9614798
Concerns have been voiced about an impending oversupply of physicians in the United States. Do these concerns also apply to California, a state with many unique demographic characteristics? We examined trends in physician supply and medical education in California and the United States between 1980 and 1995 to better inform the formulation of workforce policies appropriate to the state's requirements for physicians. We found that similar to the United States, California has more than an ample supply of physicians in the aggregate, but too many specialists, too few underrepresented racial/ethnic minority physicians, and poor distribution of physicians across the state. However, recent growth in the supply of practicing physicians and resident physicians per capita in California has been much less dramatic than in the country overall. The state's unusually high rate of population growth has enabled California, unlike the United States as a whole, to absorb large increases in the number of practicing physicians and residents during 1980 to 1995 without substantially increasing the physician-to-population ratio. Due to a projected slowing of the state's rate of population growth, the supply of physicians per capita in the state will begin to rise steeply in coming years unless the state implements prompt reductions in the production of specialists. An immediate 25% reduction in specialist residency positions would be necessary to bring the state's supply of practicing specialists in line with projected physician requirements for the state by 2020. We conclude that major changes will be required if the state's residency programs and medical schools are to produce the number and mix of physicians the state requires. California's medical schools and residency programs will need to act in concert with federal and state government to develop effective policies to address the imbalance between physician supply and state requirements.
Undergraduate Student-Faculty Research Partnerships Affect Student RetentionReview of Higher EducationNagda BA1998Journal Article
Evaluates the impact on college student retention of a University of Michigan program promoting student-faculty research partnerships premised on the fact that successful retention efforts integrate students into the university's core academic mission. A participant-control group design shows that partnerships are most successful in promoting retention of higher risk students: African Americans and students with low achievement.
Finishing the bridge to diversityAcademic MedicineCohen JJ1997Journal Article9040244
While much progress has been made to diversify the medical workforce in regard to gender, there is a long way to go with regard to race and ethnicity. The author emphasizes that seeking diversity in the medical professions is imperative to achieve just and equitable access to rewarding careers, improved access to health care for the under-served, culturally competent care (which includes the issue of patients' satisfaction with their care), comprehensive research agenda targeted to the problems of all areas of the population, and use of the rich and diverse pool of the nation's talent to better manage the health care system. In the 1960s the civil rights movement and civil unrest woke up the nation's institutions to the need for affirmative action initiatives, and academic medicine was one of the first to respond: there was a dramatic rise in the percentage of underrepresented minority medical school matriculants. But in the mid-1970s, this trend stalled. To state it again, the AAMC in 1991 created Project 3000 by 2000 as a longterm strategy to effect small scale educational reform in the K-12 schools and colleges that are responsible for the academic preparation of potential underrespresented-minority (URM) applicants. For a few years, the attention to URMs created by this program, and other factors, spurred a significant increase in the percentage of URM matriculants and proved the power of affirmative action. But the increase has not continued. The author maintains that this may be largely because affirmative action is being pursued with less vigor and in some cases has been stopped by law. He concludes with a vigorous defense of affirmative action and maintains that it must be used alongside more long-term solutions such as project 3000 by 2000 to achieve true diversity in the medical professions.
Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciencesTalking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciencesSeymour E1997Books
This intriguing book explores the reasons that lead undergraduates of above-average ability to switch from science, mathematics, and engineering majors into nonscience majors. Based on a three-year, seven-campus study, the volume takes up the ongoing national debate about the quality of undergraduate education in these fields, offering explanations for net losses of students to non-science majors.Data show that approximately 40 percent of undergraduate students leave engineering programs, 50 percent leave the physical and biological sciences, and 60 percent leave mathematics. Concern about this waste of talent is heightened because these losses occur among the most highly qualified college entrants and are disproportionately greater among women and students of color, despite a serious national effort to improve their recruitment and retention.The authors' findings, culled from over 600 hours of ethnographic interviews and focus group discussions with undergraduates, explain the intended and unintended consequences of some traditional teaching practices and attitudes. "Talking about Leaving" is richly illustrated with students' accounts of their own experiences in the sciences.This is a landmark study--an essential source book for all those concerned with changing the ways that we teach science, mathematics, and engineering education, and with opening these fields to a more diverse student body.
Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groupsSmall Group ResearchMcLeod Poppy1996Journal Article
There is a growing belief among managers that ethnic diversity, when well managed, can provide organizations with certain competitive advantages. But the belief in this value-inl diversity hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal rather than empirical evidence. Results are reported ofa controlled experimental study that compares the performance on a brainstorm ing task between groups composed of all Anglo-Americans with groups composed ofAnglo-, Asian, African, and Hispanic Americans. The particular brainstorming task used-The Tourist Problem-was chosenfor its relevancefordiversity along the dimension of ethnicity. The ideas produced by the ethnically diverse groups were judged to be of higher quality-more effective andfeasible-than the ideas produced by the homogeneous groups. Members of homogeneous groups reported marginally more attraction to their groups than did members of diverse oroups. Directions for future research with respect to the degree of diversity, the nature of the task, and group process are discussed.
The Effect of Changing Policy Climate on Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Diversity AAASMalcom S1996Journal Article
While the SME fields may seem like esoteric and narrow areas, they are in fact at the root of our industry, the engine of our economy, and the basis of wealth creation. We know that if this knowledge is not available to all segments of the community, we will not have the mechanisms for equality or for changing and empowering communities. Science and technology support the quality of life we enjoy in the United States. We believe the stakes are high for developed as well as developing countries and developing communities. Our ability to strengthen communities and to build an educated and technically savvy workforce in those communities must be maintained.
The Role of Black and Hispanic Physicians in Providing Health Care for Underserved PopulationsThe New England Journal of MedicineKomaromy M1996Journal Article8609949
Patients who are members of minority groups may be more likely than others to consult physicians of the same race or ethnic group, but little is known about the relation between patients’ race or ethnic group and the supply of physicians or the likelihood that minority-group physicians will care for poor or black and Hispanic patients. We analyzed data on physicians’ practice locations and the racial and ethnic makeup and socioeconomic status of communities in California in 1990.Black and Hispanic physicians have a unique and important role in caring for poor, black, and Hispanic patients in California. Dismantling affirmative action programs, as is currently proposed, may threaten health care for both poor people and members of minority groups.
Understanding Our Differences: Performance in Decision-Making Groups with Diverse MembersHuman RelationsMaznevski M1994Journal Article
The purpose of this article is to develop a model to explain performance in decision-making groups characterized by high diversity in composition. It begins with a brief discussion on the nature and effects of diversity. Previous research on group performance is then reviewed with the general conclusion that diverse groups perform less well than homogeneous ones do. This conclusion is challenged by closely examining a small group of studies specifically researching the effects of diversity, and it is shown that diversity can enhance a group's performance if it is integrated. Communication is proposed as an integrating mechanism, and a theory of communication in terms of preconditions is described. This theory is then used to develop propositions concerning the relationships among diversity, integration, and performance in decision-making groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Cultural Diversity’s Impact on Interaction Process and Performance: Comparing Homogeneous and Diverse Task GroupsAcademy of Management JournalWatson WE1993Journal Article
The interaction process and performance of culturally homogeneous and culturally diverse groups were studied for 17 weeks. Initially, homogeneous groups scored higher on both process and performance effectiveness. Over time, both types of group showed improvement on process and performance, and the between-group differences converged. By week 17, there were no differences in process or overall performance, but the heterogeneous groups scored higher on two task measures. Implications for management and future research are given.
Differences in decision making regarding risk taking: A comparison of culturally diverse and culturally homogeneous task groups International Journal of Intercultural RelationsWatson W1992Journal Article
This study examined the differences in the group decision making of culturally diverse and culturally homogeneous groups regarding tasks in which alternatives consisted of a wide range of risk. One hundred and nineteen subjects were divided into 14 culturally diverse groups (having members of three different ethnic/cultural backgrounds) and 18 culturally homogeneous groups. Each group was presented with a series of decision problems that required making choices of action involving varying degrees of risk. Significant differences were noted between the decisions made by the two types of groups, indicating differences in their risk-taking propensities. The rule of the more diverse the more conservative versus the more similar the more risky was developed from the results. Investigation of the group process also indicated interaction behavior differences between culturally diverse and culturally homogeneous groups. Diverse groups had more problems with interaction behaviors that interfered with problem-solving, whereas homogeneous groups indicated more facilitating interaction behaviors. Discussion of interaction differences due to cultural diversity is offered. Implications of findings for effective management of culturally diverse groups are also given.
Recruitment of minority physicians into careers in internal medicineAnnals of Internal MedicinePotts JT1992Journal Article1586126
Despite some initial success in the early 1970s, the important goal of increasing the numbers of under-represented minorities in medical school and on medical faculties has stalled short of proportionate representation. To further the current efforts of the Association of Professors in Medicine (APM) and other national medical groups that are devoted to improving the numbers of minorities in medicine, ideas and program information must be shared among institutions. In this spirit, we review our experience at Massachusetts General Hospital. We found that the first step toward this goal must be an institutional commitment based on increased awareness and on special effort focused on housestaff recruitment. Once the numbers of minorities increase, the department chairperson, training program directors, and other involved faculty can work with younger minority physicians; the cooperative relationship thus created can guide the development of a strong minority recruitment program without requiring an undue time commitment from minority trainees and faculty. The APM has a combined goal: to achieve early practical results in individual departments, to play a catalytic role with the community and other national medical organizations, and to increase the number of minorities entering medical school and careers in medicine generally.
Chapter 7 - Human Resources for the Research Work ForceFederally Funded Research: Decisions for a Decade, OTA-SET-490OTA 1991Single Chapter of Compiled Work
This chapter focuses on Ph.D. production and employment in the United States and the research work force, as a subset of the total science and engineering work force. The educational ‘pipeline’ that prepares students at the K-12 through undergraduate level for doctoral study is discussed where needed. First, the chapter discusses the overall shape of Ph.D. production in the United States, the Federal role in supporting graduate education, and the present employment prospects for new Ph.D.s. Second, the chapter focuses on projections for future employment of Ph.D.s, and then turns to training resources. Scientific education has yielded a significant number of new Ph.D.s, yet the benefits of this education have not accrued equally to all groups and, therefore, to the Nation. Women and U.S. racial and ethnic minorities, despite gains in Ph.D. awards through the 1970s and 1980s, lag the achievement of white men. Relative to their numbers in both the general and the undergraduate populations, women and minorities are under-participating in the research work force. Foreign nationals on temporary visas are a growing proportion of s/e degree recipients. National Science Foundation (NSF) data indicate the following trends.
Effects of Ethnic Group Cultural Differences on Cooperative and Competitive Behavior on a Group TaskAcademy of Management JournalCox T1991Journal Article
This study examined the hypothesis that differences in the cultural norms of Anglo-Americans and three other ethnic groups--Asian, Hispanic, and Black Americans--will result in different behaviors on a group task. Student subjects were assigned to ethnically diverse or all-Anglo groups. Individual and group responses were measured using a Prisoner's Dilemma task in which participants could choose to compete or cooperate with another party. We hypothesized that groups composed of people from collectivist cultural traditions would display more cooperative behavior than groups composed of people from individualistic cultural traditions. Results confirmed this hypothesis. Implications for future research and for organizations seeking to manage diversity are discussed.
Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational CompetitivenessThe ExecutiveCox T1991Journal Article
The recent business trends of globalization and increasing ethnic and gender diversity are turning managers' attention to the management of cultural differences. The management literature has suggested that organizations should value diversity to enhance organizational effectiveness. However, the specific link between managing diversity and organizational competitiveness is rarely made explicit and no article has reviewed actual research data supporting such a link. This article reviews arguments and research data on how managing diversity can create a competitive advantage. We address cost, attraction of human resources, marketing success, creativity and innovation, problem-solving quality, and organizational flexibility as six dimensions of business performance directly impacted by the management of cultural diversity. We then offer suggestions for improving organizational capability to manage this diversity.
The Multicultural OrganizationThe ExecutiveCox T1991Journal Article
Organizations are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality. This diversity brings substantial potential benefits such as better decision making, greater creativity and innovation, and more successful marketing to different types of customers. But, increased cultural differences within a workforce also bring potential costs in higher turnover, interpersonal conflict, and communication breakdowns. To capitalize on the benefits of diversity while minimizing the potential costs, leaders are being advised to oversee change processes toward creating "multicultural" organizations. What are the characteristics of such an organization, and how do they differ from those of the past? What mechanisms are available to facilitate such a change? This article addresses these questions. It also describes a model for understanding the required features of a multicultural organization and reviews tools that pioneering companies have found useful in changing organizations toward the multicultural model.
Valuing Diversity, Part 1: Making the most of cultural differences at the workplacePersonnelCopeland Lennie1988Journal Article
Organizations are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality. This diversity brings substantial potential benefits such as better decision making, greater creativity and innovation, and more successful marketing to different types of customers. But, increased cultural differences within a workforce also bring potential costs in higher turnover, interpersonal conflict, and communication breakdowns. To capitalize on the benefits of diversity while minimizing the potential costs, leaders are being advised to oversee change processes toward creating "multicultural" organizations. What are the characteristics of such an organization, and how do they differ from those of the past? What mechanisms are available to facilitate such a change? This article addresses these questions. It also describes a model for understanding the required features of a multicultural organization and reviews tools that pioneering companies have found useful in changing organizations toward the multicultural model.
Biculturalism, locus of control and leader behavior in ethnically mixed small groupsJournal of Applied Social PsychologyGarza T1982Journal Article
36 male Chicano undergraduates participated in a small group discussion composed of 4 members: a naive S who invariably served as group leader and 3 confederates representing distinct ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Chicano). Ss were selected on the basis of their scores on the Biculturalism Inventory. Behavioral observations revealed several interactions involving group support. High biculturals, in comparison to low biculturals, adopted a more active leader role in nonsupportive than in supportive groups, asking for more opinions and evaluations, and making more clarification statements. While low-bicultural externals and high-bicultural internals tended to be more interpersonally assertive and to make more clarification statements under supportive conditions, it was low-bicultural internals and high-bicultural externals who exhibited the most active leader roles in nonsupportive groups. Additional findings reveal that statements made by the Anglo confederate were clarified more often in the supportive condition, while statements made by either the Black or the Chicano confederate were clarified more often in the nonsupportive condition. Results are discussed in relation to previous literature and the need to develop a more responsive social psychology of interethnic dynamics.
Minority Recruitment to the Health Professions: a Matched Comparison Six-Year Follow-UpJournal of Medical EducationPhilips BU1981Journal Article7277436
An experiential program was designed to attract minority students to health careers and to affect the supply and distribution of health manpower in a medically underserved area. A six-year follow-up study of participants and a matched comparison group of nonparticipants indicate the value of the program. Participants were found to be employed in health careers and to achieve long-term career preferences more often than nonparticipants, even though they experienced slightly more obstacles to career attainment. Although more of the participants appeared to remain in the underserved area to practice their health profession, respondents from both groups who had achieved a health career and who had been educated in the underserved area were more likely to remain in the area to practice. This study is evidence of the value of long-term follow-up evaluation.
Effects of Racial Composition on Small Work GroupsSmall Group BehaviorRuhe J1977Journal Article
Evaluates the effect of integration and segregation of Blacks and whites in a small group setting in a work environment. Discriminant analysis suggests that while few behavioral and attitudinal differences exist between Blacks and whites, integration is beneficial to Blacks and not detrimental to whites.
The Influence of Race on the Manifestation of LeadershipJournal of Applied PsychologyFenelon J1971Journal Article5559187
The question of whether racial differences influence the manifestation of dominance (Do) was investigated by pairing black and white women who were high and low on the California Psychological Inventory Do scale and having them interact in a task in which one had to lead and the other follow. Groups were constituted of the following pairs of college women: (a) high- and low-Do whites—Group 1; (6) highand low-Do blacks—Group 2; (c) high-Do white and low-Do blacks—Group 3; and (d) high-Do blacks and low-Do whites—Group 4. The rate of leadership assumption by the high-Do white women paired with the low-Do black women in Group 3 was significantly lower than the rate of leadership assumption by the high- Do 5s in the other groups. Analysis of the decision-making process suggested that this stemmed from the reluctance of the high-Do white girls to assume leadership over the low-Do black girls coupled with increased assertiveness on the part of the low-Do black girls when paired with a white partner.
Quality and acceptance of problem solutions by members of homogeneous and heterogeneous groupsThe Journal of Abnormal and Social PsychologyHoffman L.R1961Journal Article13715029
Though previous work by Hoffman (see 34: 954) had demonstrated that higher quality solutions to problems were produced by heterogeneous groupings of people (in terms of personality) than homogeneous, the present research was prompted by the question as to the generalizability of the findings. This study attempts to find where the results relate to situations which enhance group differences in terms of value or attitude held. Even on problems designed to produce emotional conflict, the heterogeneous groups proved to be more effective in problem solving. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4GE01H. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

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